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  • fractions
  • We aimed to determine fractions of (i) glutaminolytic pathway involving aminotransferase reaction supplying 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to the Krebs cycle vs. (ii) active segment of the Krebs cycle with aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase-3 (ACO-IDH3), which is typically inactive in cancer cells due to the citrate export from mitochondria. (frontiersin.org)
  • In cyanobacteria, Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions located SynCaK mainly to the plasma membrane. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Because many known disease biomarkers are both glycoproteins and membrane bound, we chose the hydrazide method to specifically target, enrich, and identify glycosylated proteins from breast cancer cell membrane fractions using the LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In MCF-7, MDA-MB-453 and MDA-MB-468 cell membrane fractions, use of the hydrazide method facilitated an initial enrichment and site mapping of 27 N-linked glycosylation sites in 25 different proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • recordings
  • To address this issue, whole-cell recordings were performed in thin slices from neonatal rats, in which RVLM bulbospinal cells can be visualized by retrograde labeling with a fluorescent tracer. (ahajournals.org)
  • The spatiotemporal dynamics of the sensory response in layer 2/3 of primary somatosensory cortex evoked by a single brief whisker deflection was investigated by simultaneous voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging and whole-cell (WC) voltage recordings in the anesthetized rat combined with reconstructions of dendritic and axonal arbors of L2/3 pyramids. (jneurosci.org)
  • patch clamp
  • We have used the patch-clamp technique in combination with molecular techniques to define the ion channels involved in the outward current and to study the presence of Ca v in JG cells and their possible interaction with the secretory process. (ahajournals.org)
  • For patch clamp, the cells were transferred to cover slips, and for the renin secretion studies the cells were separated on a Percoll density gradient (25% Percoll at 27 000 g for 30 minutes), resuspended in RPMI-1640 medium, and seeded in 96-multiwell plates. (ahajournals.org)
  • channels
  • Ionic signaling pathways, including voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels, are instrumental in antigen-mediated responses of peripheral T cells. (rupress.org)
  • However, how Kv channels cooperate with other signaling pathways involved in T cell activation and differentiation is unknown. (rupress.org)
  • To determine if Kv channels contribute to the distinct functions of naive, effector, and anergized T cells, we tested their role in immunoregulatory cytokine production. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that JG cells express functional cAMP-sensitive BK Ca channels (the ZERO splice variant) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca 2+ channels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ion channels responsible for setting the membrane potential of JG cells are not known with certainty. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of the transient receptor potential channels, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPP1 (PKD2), has been shown to contribute to the myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the present study we sought to determine the potential role of various mechanosensitive TRP channels to myogenic signaling in arterioles of the rat retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • In some experiments, confocal immunolabeling of wholemount preparations was used to examine the localization of specific mechanosensitive TRP channels in retinal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (arvojournals.org)
  • However, during physiologic conditions of a dynamic change in membrane potentials, the kinetics of the ion channels will differ from the steady state. (asahq.org)
  • One of these systems comprises a set of cell membrane delimited ion channels. (frontiersin.org)
  • All of these ion channels have the potential to play a role in pacemaking under different conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, when the membrane potential is set positive to the channel's resting potential (e.g. +60 mV), these channels pass very little current. (wikipedia.org)
  • These channels are not perfect rectifiers, as they can pass some outward current in the voltage range up to about 30 mV above resting potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • They, along with the "leak" channels, establish the resting membrane potential of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Ca 2+ influx is thought to be important for ensuring that the mechanically gated channels operate within their most sensitive response region, setting the fraction of channels open at rest, and possibly for the continued maintenance of stereocilia. (pnas.org)
  • The sense of hearing depends on mechanically sensitive ion channels located near the tips of the stereocilia on the sensory hair cells of the inner ear ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Stomatal closing begins when the membrane depolarizes, causing the opening of outward-rectifying K + channels. (plantphysiol.org)
  • However
  • However, analysis of sub-threshold changes in the membrane potential revealed evidence for inhibitory interactions between MTCs that belong to different glomerular units. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, whether these oscillations are generated by an intrinsic CA1 mechanism or are driven by CA3 and entorhinal cortical projections, and whether the oscillations are generated by a particular cell type or a network of various cell populations, remains unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, the molecules and mechanisms that enable cells to perceive direction during electrotactic, persistent motility have yet to be investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fluorescent
  • CellLight® Mitochondria-GFP, BacMam 2.0, provides an easy method for the labeling of mitochondria with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in live cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • You can observe mitochondria-GFP behavior in live cells using a fluorescent imaging system and standard FITC/GFP filter set. (thermofisher.com)
  • Although the potassium content in the mutant organisms was comparable to that observed in the wild type, ΔSynCaK was characterized by a depolarized resting membrane potential, as determined by a potential-sensitive fluorescent probe. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Green fluorescent protein-tagged CHX20 expressed in mesophyll protoplasts was localized mainly to membranes of the endosomal system. (plantphysiol.org)
  • astroglial
  • Considering the heterogeneity of astrocytes and their differential susceptibility to therapeutic interventions, it becomes necessary to evaluate the determinants of transport activity in individual astroglial cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • activity
  • Glycolytic flux upregulation at hypoxia was evidently matched by a higher activity of the Leloir pathway in O XPHOS cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hypoxic O XPHOS cells increased 2-fold the NADPH oxidase activity, whereas hypoxic glycolytic cells decreased it. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cell membrane becomes hyperpolarized at the front and depolarized at the back, which confirms NaKA activity at the leading edge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • K + is the most abundant cation in organisms, and in general, it plays a crucial role in the survival and development of cells by regulating enzyme activity and tuning electrochemical membrane potential. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The clarity of these patterns motivated the use of specific activity pattern shapes to classify entorhinal cell types. (stanford.edu)
  • CHX20, a member of a poorly understood cation/H + exchanger gene family in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), is preferentially and highly expressed in guard cells as shown by promoter∷ β -glucuronidase activity and by whole-genome microarray. (plantphysiol.org)
  • stimuli
  • Like other sensory receptors, hair cells possess an adaptation mechanism that reduces the transduction current in response to sustained stimuli ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • outward current
  • By convention, inward current (positive charge moving into the cell) is displayed in voltage clamp as a downward deflection, while an outward current (positive charge moving out of the cell) is shown as an upward deflection. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Each Kv channel is required for maximal IL-2 production by naive CD4 + lymphocytes, whereas none appears to play a role in IL-2, IL-4, or IFN-γ production by effector cells. (rupress.org)
  • Data from A549 cells incubated with carbon nanotubes fake a strong cytotoxic effect within the MTT assay after 24 h that reaches roughly 50%, whereas the same treatment with SWCNTs, but detection with WST-1, reveals no cytotoxicity. (docplayer.net)
  • cancer
  • Thus, the metabolic plasticity of cancer cells is illustrated under conditions frequently established for solid tumors in vivo , such as aglycemia plus hypoxia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consequently, a wide acceptance of the irreversible and exclusive Warburg phenotype in cancer cells is incorrect. (frontiersin.org)
  • Analyzing the N-glycoproteins from membranes of breast cancer cell lines highlights the usefulness of the procedure for generating a practical set of potential biomarkers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • voltage
  • 11 This allows for evaluating the changes in the ionic current during a more physiologic voltage setting. (asahq.org)
  • The bottom-most trace is current elicited by a voltage step to negative 60 mV , and the top-most to positive 60mV, relative to the resting potential , which is close to the K + reversal potential in this experimental system. (wikipedia.org)
  • principles
  • This approach successfully classifies the majority of entorhinal cells and reveals unsuspected entorhinal coding principles. (stanford.edu)
  • flows
  • Changes in the resting open probability alter the amplitude of the "silent current" ( 4 , 5 ) that continuously flows into the sensory cells, causing them to operate at a relatively depolarized membrane potential near −40 mV ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • interactions
  • Immune responses are initiated and regulated by the physical interactions of receptors and ligands on lymphocytes and APCs, and by soluble signaling factors including cyto-kines and chemokines, which are produced by APCs and inflammatory cells. (rupress.org)
  • fibroblast
  • In addition, several domains that regulate the gene's expression differentially in muscle (Qm7) and fibroblast cells (DF1) were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Later on, ultrastructural studies suggested that ICC were either primitive muscle cells[ 4 , 5 ] or fibroblast-like cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mechanism
  • MTT formazan crystals formed in the MTT reaction are lumped with nanotubes and offer a potential mechanism to guide bioremediation and clearance for SWCNTs from contaminated tissue. (docplayer.net)
  • auditory
  • The course will explore the tone combinations that humans consider consonant or dissonant, the scales we use, and the emotions music elicits, all of which provide a rich set of data for exploring music and auditory aesthetics in a biological framework. (coursera.org)
  • channel
  • Further, to determine the underlying effects on APD, effects of isoflurane on the L-type Ca channel, the delayed-rectifier K channel, and the inward-rectifier K channel were determined during a dynamic change in membrane potential that mimicked the AP profile. (asahq.org)
  • A channel that is "inwardly-rectifying" is one that passes current (positive charge) more easily in the inward direction (into the cell) than in the outward direction (out of the cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • By saying ground truth data we imply that we have access to the complete state of the system for any simulated moment, that is, we can access any variable, such as membrane potential, transmembrane current passing through any channel type, complete set of spike times, etc. (springer.com)
  • synaptic
  • Novel, biologically constrained network models were constructed with these individual cell models, and we investigated networks across a range of experimentally determined excitatory inputs and inhibitory synaptic strengths. (frontiersin.org)
  • transport
  • This study evaluates single-cell indicators of glutamate transport in sulforhodamine 101-positive astrocytes of Q175 mice, a knock-in model of Huntington's disease (HD). (jneurosci.org)
  • Advances have been triggered by the ability to patch guard cell PM, to study transport across this membrane, and to analyze mutants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • contributes
  • This system enables SAN fight or flight heart rate increases and contributes to SAN cell death under pathological stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hence, the tectorial membrane contributes to control of hearing sensitivity by influencing the ionic environment around the stereocilia. (pnas.org)
  • whole-cell
  • We optically stimulated MTCs expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in transgenic mice, while recording from individual MTCs in juxtacellular or whole-cell configuration in vivo . (frontiersin.org)