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  • mitogen-activa
  • The docking protein FRS2 was implicated in the transmission of extracellular signals from the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors to the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. (asm.org)
  • Activation of the FGF and NGF receptors results in a strong activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade by means of recruitment of the Grb2-Sos complex to the plasma membrane ( 19 , 22 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Moreover, dok-4 and dok-5 enhance c-Ret-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. (rupress.org)
  • Fibroblast growth receptor 1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α, and epidermal growth factor receptor are all potential entry points to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase intracellular signaling pathways already known to be important for neoplasia. (pnas.org)
  • Genes
  • 1990 ). Genes with homologous sequence (FPR2 and FPR3) were identified through low-stringency hybridization using the FPR1 cDNA. (springer.com)
  • To define the HA mutations related to these antigenic sites, we cloned and sequenced the HA genes amplified by polymerase chain reaction of parent virus and MAb-selected escape mutants. (scribd.com)
  • Our next step, as described in this report, was to identify the genetic changes associated with the four antigenic sites on the HA of HlNi swine viruses by sequencing the HA genes of MAb-selected mutants and the parent strain, Sw/ IN/1726/88 (Sw/IN/88), for comparison with the Hi HA of AIPR/8/34 (6, 21, 32, 42). (scribd.com)
  • Sequence analysis of the S -locus genes in Leavenworthia, phylogeny of S alleles, gene expression patterns, and comparative genomics analyses provide support for both hypotheses. (plos.org)
  • The product of one of these genes acts as the receptor and recognizes the pollen protein produced by the same plant, while the product of the other gene is the pollen protein that is recognized by the receptor. (plos.org)
  • The connexin protein family is encoded by at least 13 genes in rodents, with many homologues cloned from other species. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Our results demonstrate the utility of applying DNA sequencing technology to systematically assess the coding sequence of genes within cancer genomes. (pnas.org)
  • Alterations in the genes encoding these proteins, through mutation or altered regulation, such as by gene amplification, have been shown to contribute to tumor formation and, therefore, there is intense interest in this protein family for understanding mechanisms and targets for therapeutic intervention ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated rapid resequencing of these genes. (pnas.org)
  • To find molecular targets, we have sequenced the coding exons for the kinase domains of 20 human receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes in glioblastomas. (pnas.org)
  • tyrosine kinases
  • The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor families belong to a large group of protein tyrosine kinases that play a crucial role in controlling cell growth, differentiation, and survival among other activities (reviewed in references 2 and 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Docking proteins are substrates of tyrosine kinases and function in the recruitment and assembly of specific signal transduction molecules. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, specific docking proteins of receptor tyrosine kinases have been discovered which mediate particular biological responses. (rupress.org)
  • functionally
  • Furthermore, these data suggest that during normal meiosis in S. cerevisiae the assembled SC may act to functionally couple key crossover recombination proteins to one another. (prolekare.cz)
  • The formation of interhomolog crossovers during meiosis depends on meiosis-specific proteins and, in a number of organisms, is temporally and functionally linked to a conserved meiotic chromosomal structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC). (prolekare.cz)
  • bioinformatics
  • Our bioinformatics analyses suggest that they could be involved in plant cell wall degradation (Lin2118 protein from Listeria innocua , PDB code 3oou), symbiotic nitrogen fixation (protein from Chromobacterium violaceum , PDB code 3oio), and either metabolism of plant-derived biomass or nitrogen fixation (protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris , PDB code 3mn2). (hindawi.com)
  • Arginine
  • The CASTOR Proteins Are Arginine Sensors for the mTORC1 Pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that CASTOR1, a previously uncharacterized protein, interacts with GATOR2 and is required for arginine deprivation to inhibit mTORC1. (nih.gov)
  • F3 ( YDR465c ) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to the delta-nitrogen atom of arginine residues in a novel protein posttranslational reaction ( 40 , 58 ), while F9 ( YER175c ) catalyzes the methyl esterification of the small molecule trans -aconitate ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • monomeric
  • Monomeric and trimeric models of VEEV-E1 were constructed with our MPACK program, using the crystal structure of the E1 protein of Semliki forest virus as a template. (springer.com)
  • Grb2
  • Each is composed of an N-terminal myristylation signal, a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and a C-terminal tail containing multiple binding sites for the SH2 domains of the adapter protein Grb2 and the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2. (asm.org)
  • However, both the FGF and NGF receptors lack the consensus p YXN binding site for the SH2 domain of Grb2 and therefore utilize docking proteins to indirectly recruit the Grb2-Sos complex, a step essential for activation of the Ras/MAPK kinase signaling cascade. (asm.org)
  • mutation
  • This report identifies a mutation in PRICKLE1 (also known as RILP for REST/NRSF interacting LIM domain protein) in all three of these pedigrees. (jove.com)
  • Computational alanine scanning calculations indicate that the average folding free energy changes upon alanine mutation for most types of non-alanine residues are higher for amino acids that are present in recurrent structural motifs than for amino acids that are not. (mdpi.com)
  • receptors
  • Migeotte I, Communi D, Parmentier M. Formyl peptide receptors: a promiscuous subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors controlling immune responses. (springer.com)
  • The GTP ligand is crucial for various protein receptors for activation of enzymatic reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • novel
  • The main improvements come from the use of a novel protein sequence representation by combining continuous wavelet descriptor and Chou's pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC), and from adopting weighted sparse representation based classifier (WSRC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein adopts a single domain with a novel fold, distinct from that of the protein tyrosine phosphatases. (embl.de)
  • species
  • As such, when pairs of interacting proteins from different species are compared, there will be many positions in the two proteins that vary. (elifesciences.org)
  • They are found in almost all vertebrate cell types, and somewhat similar proteins have been cloned from plant species. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • As a result, all methyl-accepting species such as RNAs, proteins, and small molecules can become radiolabeled and the fate of the methylated species can be followed biochemically. (asm.org)
  • experimental
  • Some experimental techniques such as X-ray crystallography, NMR Spectroscopy and cross-linking approaches, have applied to investigate protein-RNA interface properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • function
  • Proteins must have the correct shape to function properly, as they often work by binding to other proteins or molecules-much like a key fitting into a lock. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our findings strengthen the notion that a primary function of many SC proteins is to facilitate crossover recombination, independent of a role in building the larger SC structure. (prolekare.cz)
  • In addition, we show some successful approaches of elucidating the function of unknown proteins based on their structural information. (mdpi.com)
  • subunit
  • Protein phosphatase-2B (PP2B or calcineurin), a calcium-dependent enzyme whose activity is stimulated by calmodulin, is composed of two subunits the catalytic A-subunit and the calcium-binding B-subunit. (embl.de)
  • Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of human protein phosphatase 1 and its complex with tungstate. (embl.de)
  • filaments
  • One component of the larger structure is established via the multimeric assembly of coiled-coil containing proteins that form transverse filaments [ 6 - 8 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • genomic
  • In this post-genomic era, protein, as the major component of organism, is widely studied because of its important role in nearly all cell functions including DNA transcription and replication, metabolic cycles, and signaling cascades. (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore
  • Since the number of related copies for eukaryotic proteins tends to be smaller, there are fewer proteins to compare and it is therefore harder to detect 'covariation' when it occurs. (elifesciences.org)
  • antibody
  • Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), a negative signal transducer on T cells, was the first checkpoint-blocking antibody to be approved by the US FDA for the treatment of cancer. (pnas.org)
  • molecules
  • Proteins are considered the 'workhorse molecules' of life and they are involved in virtually everything that cells do. (elifesciences.org)
  • The remaining sequence of a docking protein contains multiple tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated by the ligand-activated RTK, leading to the recruitment of a variety of signaling molecules to the cell membrane. (asm.org)
  • Invertebrates utilise a different family of molecules, innexins, that share a similar predicted secondary structure to the vertebrate connexins, but have no sequence identity to them [ PMID: 9769729 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)