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  • neurons
  • Adult sensory neurons that are cultured on nogo-a/b deficient Schwann cells form significantly fewer axonal branches vs. those on wildtype Schwann cells, while their maximal axonal extension is unaffected. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, we show that blocking the Nogo-B specific receptor NgBR, which we find expressed on sensory neurons and to interact with Schwann cell expressed Nogo-B, produces the same branching phenotype as observed after deletion of Nogo-B. These data provide evidence for a novel function of the nogo gene that is implemented by the Nogo-B isoform. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetic deletion of Nogo-B in Schwann cells reduces axonal branching, but not long-distance growth, of co-cultured adult sensory neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • In both vertebrates and invertebrates, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to several odors. (biologists.org)
  • For example in vertebrates, presynaptic Ca 2+ stores relying on either the ryanodine receptor (RyR) or the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) have been reported to participate in synaptic transmission, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and in basket cell-Purkinje cell synapses. (biologists.org)
  • However, in invertebrates, especially in sensory neurons such as ORNs, similar mechanisms have not yet been detected. (biologists.org)
  • In Drosophila , olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), with their cell bodies and dendrites located in the antennae, detect odors and transmit olfactory information to the antennal lobes. (biologists.org)
  • Drosophila and other insects have gustatory sensory neurons that mediate the recognition of external water sources, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism for water taste detection. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, ectopic expression of ppk28 confers water sensitivity to bitter-sensing gustatory neurons in the fly and sensitivity to hypo-osmotic solutions when expressed in heterologous cells. (nih.gov)
  • These recordings monitor the responses of the four gustatory neurons in a bristle, including water cells and sugar cells3. (nih.gov)
  • Nociceptive sensory neurons drive interleukin-23-mediated psoriasiform skin inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that a subset of sensory neurons expressing the ion channels TRPV1 and Nav1.8 is essential to drive this inflammatory response. (nih.gov)
  • Zanazzi, G., and Matthews, G. (2010) Enrichment and differential targeting of complexins 3 and 4 in ribbon-containing sensory neurons during zebrafish development. (zfin.org)
  • Utilizing a polyclonal antibody that recognizes all five orthologs, we demonstrate that these proteins are enriched in ribbon-containing sensory neurons. (zfin.org)
  • Members of the complexin 3/4 subfamily are enriched in these terminals in the visual system and in hair bundles of the acousticolateral system, suggesting that these proteins are differentially targeted and may have multiple roles in ribbon-containing sensory neurons. (zfin.org)
  • Rohon-Beard (RB) primary sensory neurons are multipolar neurons that extend their central axons longitudinally within the spinal cord and also extend their peripheral axons under the skin. (zfin.org)
  • The sensory data penetrates through sensory receptors, specialized neurons or cells found in the skin and other tissues. (allpsychologycareers.com)
  • Receptors for the somatosensory system are modified nerve endings of sensory neurons that have axons (see sidebar called "Nerves") that run from the point of reception straight to the spinal cord. (allpsychologycareers.com)
  • The firing rates of neurons in the grasshopper auditory system are surprisingly robust to changes in temperature, and cell-intrinsic mechanisms are sufficient to explain this temperature insensitivity. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mouse urine had previously been linked to aggressive behavior in males, and earlier research by the group showed that this response depends on receptor neurons in the mouse's nasal cavity, in an area called the vomeronasal organ. (nih.gov)
  • The scientists also tested whether the fractions were able to directly activate sensory receptor neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Receptor neurons were removed from a mouse vomeronasal organ, spread out on a Petri dish and labeled with a substance that changed color when the neuron was activated. (nih.gov)
  • Sensory neurons that are mechanoreceptors or proprioceptors acquire mature mechanotransduction indistinguishable from the adult already at E13.In contrast, most nociceptive (pain sensing) sensory neurons acquire mechanosensitive competence as a result of exposure to target-derived nerve growth factor.The highly regulated process of mechanosensory acquisition unveiled here, reveals new strategies to identify molecules required for sensory neuron mechanotransduction. (nih.gov)
  • Somatic sensation relies on the transduction of physical stimuli into electrical signals by sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. (nih.gov)
  • Little is known about how and when during development different types of sensory neurons acquire transduction competence. (nih.gov)
  • We directly investigated the emergence of electrical excitability and mechanosensitivity of embryonic and postnatal mouse sensory neurons. (nih.gov)
  • We show that sensory neurons acquire mechanotransduction competence coincident with peripheral target innervation. (nih.gov)
  • Sensory neurons that are mechanoreceptors or proprioceptors acquire mature mechanotransduction indistinguishable from the adult already at E13. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, most nociceptive (pain sensing) sensory neurons acquire mechanosensitive competence as a result of exposure to target-derived nerve growth factor. (nih.gov)
  • B, C) Stacked histograms showing the proportions of neurons with RA- or IA-mechanosensitive currents, the neurotrophin treatment is indicated for each bar, the number of cells recorded is indicated above each column. (nih.gov)
  • To test whether time in culture and neurotrophins might contribute to the acquisition of mechanosensitivity, we cultured sensory neurons from non-mechanosensitive stages (E10.5 to E12.5) for 24 h. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, only after 48 h in culture did a significant number of sensory neurons (71%, 12/17 tested neurons) acquire mechanosensitive currents (Figure 5C and E). These data are suggestive of an intrinsic program that leads to the acquisition of a mechanosensitive current starting from E13.5 in mechanoreceptors. (nih.gov)
  • neuron
  • Direct conversion of C. elegans germ cells into specific neuron types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Through the ectopic expression of single Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors, we found that the identity of mitotic germ cells can be directly converted into that of specific neuron types: glutamatergic, cholinergic, or GABAergic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our findings illustrate the ability of germ cells to be directly converted into individual, terminally differentiated neuron types and demonstrate that a specific chromatin factor provides a barrier for cellular reprogramming. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They also found that the MUP protein is recognized exclusively in the vomeronasal organ, not in the main olfactory epithelium, and activates a specific type of sensory receptor neuron. (nih.gov)
  • Developmental waves of mechanosensitivity acquisition in sensory neuron subtypes during embryonic development. (nih.gov)
  • The highly regulated process of mechanosensory acquisition unveiled here, reveals new strategies to identify molecules required for sensory neuron mechanotransduction. (nih.gov)
  • The cell diameter of each patched neuron is plotted, and the symbol colour indicates the type of current exhibited by a particular cell (see inset). (nih.gov)
  • inner ear
  • Ancestrally within jawed vertebrates, the lateral line system comprises lines of mechanosensory 'neuromasts', containing hair cells - like vestibular inner ear hair cells - that respond to local water movement ("touch at a distance"), flanked on the head by electrosensory 'ampullary organs', containing electroreceptors that respond to weak bioelectric fields (primarily used for hunting). (cam.ac.uk)
  • In hair cells of the inner ear and lateral line, however, complexin 3/4 immunoreactivity clusters on the apical surfaces of hair cells, among their stereocilia, rather than along the basolateral plasma membrane with RIBEYE b. (zfin.org)
  • We don't really know what the processes are that cause hair cells to die in the inner ear and that's what we're trying to work out, because if we can work out what's going wrong then maybe we can intervene at some point and correct or prevent the damage. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Widespread hearing loss is known to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors eventually leading to loss of hair cells in the inner ear. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Most hearing-impaired individuals suffer from sensorineural hearing loss that results from damage to hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. (hhmi.org)
  • We show that an accessory structure in the hearing organ, the tectorial membrane, affects the function of inner ear sensory cells by storing calcium ions. (pnas.org)
  • The sense of hearing depends on mechanically sensitive ion channels located near the tips of the stereocilia on the sensory hair cells of the inner ear ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nociceptors
  • Upon selective pharmacological or genetic ablation of nociceptors, DDCs failed to produce IL-23 in imiquimod-exposed skin.Consequently, the local production of IL-23-dependent inflammatory cytokines by dermal γδT17 cells and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the skin were markedly reduced.These findings indicate that TRPV1(+)Nav1.8(+) nociceptors, by interacting with DDCs, regulate the IL-23/IL-17 pathway and control cutaneous immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • nerve
  • Directional deflections of lengthy microvilli (stereocilia) on the areas of locks cells travel actions possibilities in 8th cranial (vestibular) nerve afferents, which qualified prospects to neuronal activity in many human brain INO-1001 locations. (stopvivisection.info)
  • 1988). For example, type I locks cells possess been defined as flask-shaped and are covered by customized afferent nerve endings known as calyces. (stopvivisection.info)
  • 1988). Consequently, vestibular afferent nerve activity can be not really basically determined by locks cell type. (stopvivisection.info)
  • From the central end of each A cell , an axon passes within the sensillum to the skeletal support and then in the tympanic nerve to the thoracic ganglia of the moth. (britannica.com)
  • Receptors can also be bare nerve endings, or a nerve ending enclosed in another structure, such as a hair follicle. (allpsychologycareers.com)
  • organs
  • Fundamental questions in biology include how different organs and cell types are specified during development, for which the lateral line system of fishes and aquatic amphibians provides an excellent model. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Sensory organs provide the body with vital information about changes in the world around you and the internal conditions of your body. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • electroreceptors
  • Validation of a variety of candidate genes revealed close developmental and evolutionary links between electroreceptors and hair cells (Modrell et al. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Active electroreception requires specialized electroreceptors called tuberous receptors . (scholarpedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Bermingham-McDonogh O. Open chromatin dynamics in prosensory cells of the embryonic mouse cochlea. (washington.edu)
  • Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Cells into the Subretinal Space of a Non-Human Primate. (washington.edu)
  • The GIPC1-Akt1 Pathway Is Required for the Specification of the Eye Field in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. (washington.edu)
  • The availability of embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from human blastocysts may open novel avenues for medical treatment of otherwise incurable diseases. (fountainmagazine.com)
  • molecular
  • In the hope of understanding normal hearing-as well as its development, its deterioration, and its possible restoration-our group is investigating the molecular structure and operation of hair cells from the vertebrate internal ear. (hhmi.org)
  • peripheral
  • 2005). Although many features of vestibular locks cells are well described, we perform not really understand exactly how each locks cell type contributes to peripheral digesting of mind motions. (stopvivisection.info)
  • flows
  • Changes in the resting open probability alter the amplitude of the "silent current" ( 4 , 5 ) that continuously flows into the sensory cells, causing them to operate at a relatively depolarized membrane potential near −40 mV ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • aberrant
  • To protect against invading pathogens, the skin harbours specialized immune cells, including dermal dendritic cells (DDCs) and interleukin (IL)-17-producing γδ T (γδT17) cells, the aberrant activation of which by IL-23 can provoke psoriasis-like inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • specific
  • In rats, the two locks cell types are present in very similar quantities, and they are discovered in all specific zones of the vestibular physical epithelium (Desai et al. (stopvivisection.info)
  • The brain recognizes the exact type of sensor activated because each sensor travels a designated "path" to carry its specific sensory information to the right area of the brain. (allpsychologycareers.com)
  • tissues
  • My lab's research in this area has mainly been focused on understanding how signaling systems participate in feedback regulation of stem and progenitor cells and the effects of such feedback on morphogenesis, patterning, and regulated growth of different tissues. (uci.edu)
  • Auditory
  • The continuous depolarization is important in one class of sensory cell, the outer hair cell, where it is thought to facilitate the detection of soft sounds by allowing amplification mediated by somatic electromotility ( 7 ) to operate at auditory frequencies ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • brain
  • The authors of the present article based their assumption on the concept that the sensory systems are the 'windows to the brain' through which various functions of the human organism can be controlled. (isharonline.org)
  • The alvinellid sensory cells exhibit characteristics of annelid ciliary types, and among the most unique features were the head sensory inputs and structure of the neural cell bodies of the brain, which were surrounded by multiple membranes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • But most sensory information goes on to the brain, which perceives or processes the information. (allpsychologycareers.com)
  • Each cochlea normally contains about 16,000 hair cells, which convert mechanical inputs derived from sounds into electrical signals that the brain can interpret. (hhmi.org)
  • hair
  • Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head actions and get central engine reflexes that control gaze, body motions, and body orientation. (stopvivisection.info)
  • When the hearing aid increases volume to compensate for hearing loss in the ear, damage occurs to hair cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Once the hair cells die, they cannot be regenerated. (medgadget.com)
  • Hair cells are the sensory receptors of hearing and each hair represents a particular frequency. (medgadget.com)
  • Once that hair cell is damaged and dies, the cochlea cannot recognize that particular frequency. (medgadget.com)
  • As this reaches over the limit the hair cells can handle, they progressively become damaged. (medgadget.com)
  • This does not create any excessive force on the hair cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Epithelial hair cells at the bottom of the pore sense changes in the transmembrane potential and increase their probability of releasing neurotransmitter with increasing depolarization. (scholarpedia.org)
  • It is loss of the hair cell which is the precipitating cause of hearing loss. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We have used a subtractive hybridisation strategy to identify a pool of genes whose expression is altered by two hair cell survival factors, Brn-3c and Barhl-1. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In particular, he is interested in the development, regeneration, and operation of the inner ear's sensory receptors, the hair cells. (hhmi.org)
  • Human hair cells may be lost throughout life as a result of genetic conditions, infections, ototoxic drugs, acoustical trauma, and ageing. (hhmi.org)
  • We have known since the investigations of von Békésy in the 1950s that sound excites a traveling wave that propagates along the elastic basilar membrane from base to apex and delivers sound energy to the mechanoreceptive hair cells. (hhmi.org)
  • Loud sounds depleted Ca 2+ from the tectorial membrane, and Ca 2+ manipulations had large effects on hair cell function. (pnas.org)
  • processes
  • In a disconcerting way, the development of neoplastic cell populations in contemporary metazoans resembles not only a reversal of evolutionary processes but also a recapitulation of them" (Dawe 1969). (nanopaprika.eu)
  • The critical roles played by glutamate receptors in neurophysiological and neuropathological processes provide a strong impetus for understanding these fascinating molecules at many levels of study. (northwestern.edu)
  • Lateral
  • A series of lateral line placodes (bilateral patches of thickened ectoderm) on the head elongate to form sensory ridges. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Cellular
  • The ability of transcription factors to directly reprogram the identity of cell types is usually restricted and is defined by cellular context. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because these cells are not replaced by cellular division, their disappearance is associated with a gradual decline of our senses of hearing and equilibrium. (hhmi.org)
  • vestibular
  • Similar cells in the vestibular labyrinth mediate responsiveness to accelerations and thus underpin our sense of balance. (hhmi.org)
  • absent
  • It distributes to the external cytoplasmic compartment of Schwann cells in vivo , but is absent from the myelin sheath. (frontiersin.org)
  • glial
  • We observed that these cells were rich in mitochondria and possessed many electron-dense granules, and identified specialized glial cells and serial myelin-like repeats in the head sensory systems of Paralvinella hessleri . (beds.ac.uk)
  • Schwann
  • We show here that the related isoform Nogo-B is abundantly expressed in Schwann cells in the PNS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other than Nogo-A in oligodendrocytes, Nogo-B does not localize to the myelin sheath but is detected in the ER and the plasma membrane of Schwann cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nogo-B is prominently expressed in Schwann cells and localizes to the ER and plasma membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • responses
  • When the calcium store is depleted, by brief exposure to rock concert-level sounds or by the introduction of calcium chelators, the sound-evoked responses of the sensory cells decrease. (pnas.org)
  • function
  • The skin has a dual function as a barrier and a sensory interface between the body and the environment. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the number of recent studies focused on their overall transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolic stabilities, little is known regarding their sensory receptor cells and electrically active neuro-processing centers, and how these can tolerate and function in such harsh conditions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Upon restoration of tectorial membrane calcium, sensory cell function returns. (pnas.org)
  • regeneration
  • Research of locks cell regeneration in older rats recommend type II locks cells may end up being the main cell type that is normally regenerated in the utricles of adult guinea pigs and rodents when both type. (stopvivisection.info)