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  • Human
  • Minamino T, Miyauchi H, Yoshida T, Ishida Y, Yoshida H and Komuro I (2002) Endothelial cell senescence in human atherosclerosis: role of telomere in endothelial dysfunction. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Hung WY, Huang KH, Wu CW et al (2012) Mitochondrial dysfunction promotes cell migration via reactive oxygen species-enhanced beta5-integrin expression in human gastric cancer SC-M1 cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • squamous cell carc
  • ID2 is upregulated in neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • In esophageal cancer the expression level and methylation status of the gene are involved in the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The tumor suppressor gene p16 (also called MTS1, CDKN2 and INK4A) is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor and a negative cell cycle regulator ( 1 ). (jcancer.org)
  • Our previous study demonstrated that introduction of exogenous p16 via adenoviral gene transfer downregulated VEGF expression and inhibited angiogenesis in human BCa cells ( 17 ). (jcancer.org)
  • This gene plays a role in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G is expressed in enamel knots, where it regulates gene expression and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor 7-like 1 (T-cell specific, HMG-box), also known as TCF7L1, is a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor family of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, canonical PRC1 complexes and PRC2 can act together to repress gene transcription and maintain this repression through cell division (i.e. the repressed state is also present in daughter cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • placenta
  • The better understanding of cells and their functions in the placenta could lead to the development of a therapeutic response to over-proliferating cells in future and also provides a better general understanding of carcinogenic processes and how to prevent them. (medicalnewser.com)
  • MKP-4 is another MKP that belongs to Type I and, is distinct from other MKPs in this subgoup because it is only found in placenta, kidney and embryonic liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The cell cycle regulatory mol- ecules, apoptosis-related molecules, and cell stress-related proteins were examined by Western blotting. (deepdyve.com)
  • Senescence RG7422 can also become elicited by suboptimal manifestation of proteins implicated in spindle formation or mitotic checkpoint control, including human being TACC3 and murine BubR1, Bub3 and Rae1, all of which employ g53 and g21 of the DDR separately, frequently in mixture with g16Ink4a (refs 15, 32, 33). (biosemiotics2013.org)
  • ID proteins could be potential targets for systemic cancer therapies without inhibiting the functioning of most normal cells because they are highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, but not in differentiated adult cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ID proteins are key regulators of development where they function to prevent premature differentiation of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • By inhibiting the formation of E-protein dimers that promote differentiation, ID proteins can regulate the timing of differentiation of stem cells during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • GADD45G interacts with several other proteins that are involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway consists primarily of a phosphorylation cascade involving serine kinases and is mediated by regulatory proteins, which regulate cell growth by binding to growth-controlling genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • The ARCosome promotes cell death by bridging the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), allowing FIS1 to transmit a proapoptotic signal from the mitochondria to the ER and activate procaspase-8. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLK4 contains these 2 domains in addition to a third PBD, which facilitates oligomerization, targeting, and promotes trans-autophosphorylation, limiting centriole duplication to once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Specific detection of senescence marker in distinct pH in cultured cells and tissue sections. (promocell.com)
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In this study, we investigated the potential application of this first-in-class inhibitor MLN4924 in the treatment of human renal cell carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo. (deepdyve.com)
  • We demonstrated that adenoviral-mediated p16 expression exhibited multiple anti-tumor functions by simultaneously suppressing in vitro growth and in vivo angiogenesis of breast cancer cells, blocking cell division, as well as inducing senescence and apoptosis. (jcancer.org)
  • Finally, 14-3-3σ knockdown supports migratory capacity of melanoma cells in vitro , while 14-3-3σ overexpression has opposing effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • senescent cells
  • How these principles link to the function of senescent cells in aging and age-related illnesses and how the quickly accruing brand-new details could end up being used to apparent harmful senescent cell populations selectively to improve healthful life expectancy are also talked about. (biosemiotics2013.org)
  • Creation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines is normally rising as a common feature of senescent cells irrespective of the senescence-inducing stressor or system (Fig. 1). (biosemiotics2013.org)
  • Hereditary trials using knockout traces for each of these tumor suppressors that examined how senescent cells accumulate in these tissue and lead to their degeneration, set up that s16Ink4a is normally an effector of aging15 and senescence. (biosemiotics2013.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melanoma
  • In line with this, treatment of different metastatic melanoma cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), a potent inhibitor of cytosine methylation, significantly induces 14-3-3σ protein expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • undergo
  • Unlike animals, plants continually form new organs and older organs undergo a highly regulated senescence program to maximize nutrient export. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippo-YAP
  • this is how the Hippo-YAP pathway inhibits cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cadherin-mediated activation of the inhibitory pathway involves the transmembrane E-cadherin forming a homophilic bond in order to activate α- and β-catenin, which then stimulate downstream components of the Hippo-YAP pathway to ultimately downregulate cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • versus
  • Using this technology scientists aims to create ADCs having an optimal therapeutic window, balancing the effect of potent cell-killing agents on tumor cells versus healthy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome-wide comparison of mRNAs expressed during dark-induced senescence versus those expressed during age-related developmental senescence demonstrate that jasmonic acid and ethylene are more important for dark-induced (stress-related) senescence while salicylic acid is more important for developmental senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • The cell cycle hypothesis of AD proposes that the disease is caused by aberrant re-entry of different neuronal populations into the cell division cycle, following a 2-hit hypothesis (Nagy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998). The cell cycle hypothesis of AD also attempts to explain for the characteristic senile plaques and the neurofibrillary tangles of AD pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005). Thus, the cell-cycle hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease considers AD as a disease of deregulation of the cell cycle in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-cycle hypothesis of AD proposes a 2-hit hypothesis that results in neuron "immortality," and continual production of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles to cause AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppression
  • Exposure to 100 μM BPA had no effects on cell viability, but increased cytoplasmic expression of ERβ and release of GDF-15, as well as decreased release of IL-6, ET-1, and IP-10 through suppression of NFκB phosphorylation. (carleton.ca)
  • cancerous
  • In numerous kinds of cancerous cells, GADD45G is down regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the sporadic form, both alleles would need to sustain a mutation before the cell can become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar research that Boger utilized for comparison to his results involving elimination of cancerous tumors and antigens was centered around the use of similar immunoconjugates that were introduced to cancerous colon cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancerous cells typically lose this property and thus divide and grow over each other in an uncontrolled manner even when in contact with neighbouring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • When collision is unavoidable, a different phenomenon occurs whereby growth of the cells of the culture itself eventually stops in a cell-density dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • it occurs between a select few cells in a likely heterogeneous culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • h-PDLSCs were isolated successfully and were positive for human mesenchymal stem cell surface markers. (medsci.org)
  • Cell cycle markers cyclin D, Cdk4, and Ki67 are found in elevated levels in AD neurons, signifying the transition to G1 (McShea et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaf senescence has the important function of recycling nutrients, mostly nitrogen, to growing and storage organs of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • breast cancer cells
  • He lives in Baelen Breast cancer cells (BCC) frequently metastasize to the skeleton, where they lead to tumor-induced osteolysis and subsequent morbidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Neurons typically remain in G0, a nondividing, nonreplicating phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, as one allele is already mutated in all other somatic cells, the future incidence of cancers in these individuals is observed with linear kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, normal cells are resistant to the polyploidy inducing effects of R1530. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • The irreversible alkylation of DNA disrupts the nucleic acid architecture, which eventually leads to tumor cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growing evidence suggests that DNA damaging agents, such as duocarmycins, are more efficacious in tumor cell killing than tubulin binders, particularly in case of solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Each leads to a single stable state denoting the cell fate adopted upon this specific damage. (duhnnae.com)
  • KeywordsSignalling network Logical modelling Senescence DNA-damage Cell fate Cell cycle checkpoint Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2164-15-S7-S7 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (duhnnae.com)
  • Senescence is not the inevitable fate of all organisms and can be delayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different
  • In most cases, when two cells contact each other, they attempt to alter their locomotion in a different direction to avoid future collision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Marc Lacroix also examined the response BCC to the anti-osteolytic agent calcitonin In close collaboration with Prof. Guy Leclercq (Laboratoire Jean-Claude Heuson de Cancérologie Mammaire, Institut Jules Bordet, Belgium), Marc Lacroix has studied various aspects of estrogen receptor biology, ligand-binding and transcriptional activity, and life-cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Neurons subject to loss of synaptic connections, chronic exposure to oxidative stress or stress hormones like glucocorticoids will exit G0 and reenter into a cell cycle that is abortive and leads to cell death through apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • The emerging data including ours indicated that p16 contributes its anti-cancer ability by inducing tumor cells to senescence. (jcancer.org)
  • In this study, we used adenoviral-mediated p16 expression (AdRSVp16) and breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 as the model to simultaneously analyze all these p16's anti-tumor functions. (jcancer.org)
  • A recent publication in Cancer Research (August 2010) has shown that ID1 can be used to mark Endothelial Progenitor Cells which are critical to tumour growth and angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Cell International. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should an oncogenic protein, such as those produced by cells infected by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses, bind and inactivate pRb, this can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PLK4 inhibitor R1530 down regulates the expression of mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1 that in turn leads to polyploidy rendering cancer cells unstable and more sensitive to cancer chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • p16 plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore acts as a tumor suppressor that is implicated in the prevention of cancers, notably melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 acts as a tumor suppressor by binding to CDK4/6 and preventing its interaction with cyclin D. This interaction ultimately inhibits the downstream activities of transcription factors, such as E2F1, and arrests cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway connects the processes of tumor oncogenesis and senescence, fixing them on opposite ends of a spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, studies in cells have shown that ceramide-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha α (TNFα) and palmitate induce the ceramide-dependent removal of a phosphate group (dephosphorylation) of the retinoblastoma gene product RB and the enzymes, protein kinases B (AKT protein family) and C α (PKB and PKCα). (wikipedia.org)
  • ID1 can be used to mark endothelial progenitor cells which are critical to tumor growth and angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • Senescence (/sɪˈnɛsəns/) or biological aging (also spelled biological ageing) is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both appearance and decay of thalli were earlier at high saline habitats, suggesting that salinity positively influences either maturation of sporophytes or senescence of gametophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • BHLHE41 is known for its role in the circadian molecular mechanisms that influence sleep quantity as well as its role in immune function and the maturation of T helper type 2 cell lineages associated with humoral immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies have shown that regulation of stem cell maintenance and the subsequent fate determinations are quite complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEPACAM1 is involved in negative cell cycle regulation via p53, p21 and p27 signalling but also mediates increased human breast cancer cell spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Along with the debate on whether PIO causes bladder cancer in humans, animal and in vitro cell culture studies have suggested a biological effect of PIO on the induction or protection from bladder cancer [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Tropical forests in a changing climate: the future of biological diversity and impact on carbon cycle. (harvard.edu)
  • Whether senescence as a biological process itself can be slowed down, halted or even reversed, is a subject of current scientific speculation and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main biological functions of HEPACAM include a) modulating cell adhesion and migration, and b) inhibiting cancer cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the majority of miRNAs are located within the cell, some miRNAs, commonly known as circulating miRNAs or extracellular miRNAs, have also been found in extracellular environment, including various biological fluids and cell culture media. (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNA research revealed different sets of miRNAs expressed in different cell types and tissues and multiple roles for miRNAs in plant and animal development and in many other biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • indirectly
  • Albeit indirectly, senescence is by far the leading cause of death (other than in the trivially accurate sense that cerebral hypoxia, i.e., lack of oxygen to the brain, is the immediate cause of all human death). (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some DNA damage may remain in any cell despite the action of repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new branch has already provided unique insights into the mechanisms underlying brain development, evolution, neuronal and network plasticity and homeostasis, senescence, the etiology of diverse neurological diseases and neural regenerative processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaf
  • As long as the auxin level remains high in the leaf and a sufficient amount of the hormone is transported across the petiole, both senescence and abscission are delayed. (blogspot.com)
  • Leaf senescence has the important function of recycling nutrients, mostly nitrogen, to growing and storage organs of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins help to maintain the plant cell and expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes late in development prevents leaf senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The master clock within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) synchronizing clocks in peripheral tissues is entrained by the environmental condition, such as the light-dark (LD) cycle. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, PIO did not alter the growth of cells from other tissues. (medsci.org)
  • Nuclear
  • For example, Hsc70 regulates the nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1, which is a key player in G1 to S phase cell cycle transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Interestingly, PIO significantly downregulated the protein levels of p53 and cyclin D1 in J82 cells, but not NUTE cells after more than 192 hours of treatment. (medsci.org)
  • TSG reduced iNOS protein expression as well as TNF-α, IL-6, and NO content in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If a cell retains DNA damage, transcription of a gene can be prevented and thus translation into a protein will also be blocked. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatic and glial cell adhesion molecule (HEPACAM) is a protein encoded by HEPACAM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein consists of 416 amino acids, and is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • Within the citric acid cycle, isocitrate, produced from the isomerization of citrate, undergoes both oxidation and decarboxylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • E proteins heterodimerize with tissue restricted bHLH proteins such as Myod, NeuroD, etc. to form active transcription complexes so by sequestering E proteins, Id proteins can inhibit tissue restricted gene expression in multiple cell lineages using the same biochemical mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Higher-than-normal temperatures also cause an increase in senescence-related reactions. (blogspot.com)
  • The IDH step of the citric acid cycle, due to its large negative free energy change, is one of the irreversible reactions in the citric acid cycle, and, therefore, must be carefully regulated to avoid unnecessary depletion of isocitrate (and therefore an accumulation of alpha-ketoglutarate). (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Mutations are replicated when the cell replicates. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, infrequent mutations that provide a survival advantage will tend to clonally expand at the expense of neighboring cells in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of DNA replication inherently places cells at risk of acquiring mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • In local unfolding, the binding and release cycles induce localized unfolding in the substrate, which helps to overcome kinetic barriers for folding to the native state. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the splitting of the bacterial cell into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication may also be blocked and/or the cell may die. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, in rapidly dividing cells, unrepaired DNA damages that do not kill the cell by blocking replication will tend to cause replication errors and thus mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow cytometry
  • At the end of each time point the cells were harvested, washed with ice-cold PBS, and prepared for flow cytometry analysis for the various stages of the cell cycle as described in Material and Methods. (nih.gov)
  • Annuals
  • Senescence can occur throughout the entire plant, as it does in annuals, or in only the above ground portion, as it does in perennial herbs. (blogspot.com)
  • Organisms
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • Replicative senescence is the result of telomere shortening that ultimately triggers a DNA damage response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given these properties of DNA damage and mutation, it can be seen that DNA damages are a special problem in non-dividing or slowly dividing cells, where unrepaired damages will tend to accumulate over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • various stages
  • The data from the flow cytometer was used for determining the distribution of the various stages of cell cycle with the help of ModFit software (Verity Software, Topsham, ME). (nih.gov)
  • transcription
  • Therefore, canonical PRC1 complexes and PRC2 can act together to repress gene transcription and maintain this repression through cell division (i.e. the repressed state is also present in daughter cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • quiescent
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • Synchronization by contact inhibition caused more than 95% of the cells to enter G1 phase (Fig. 9A). (nih.gov)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of PIO on normal urothelial transitional epithelium (NUTE) cells and bladder cancer (J82) cells to further evaluate the risk. (medsci.org)
  • Since IMR90 are normal cells, the effect of MB on the cell cycle was investigated by measuring the distribution of the different stages of the cell cycle in synchronized IMR90 cell culture. (nih.gov)
  • Biogenesis of lamin A in normal cells and the failure to generate mature lamin A in HGPS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Life Cycle
  • Results from life cycle,thallus ontogeny, gametangial ontogeny and phylogenetic analyses suggest that this algal genus is evolutionarily affiliated in order ulotrichales. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • The exact role of each of these hormones in senescence has not yet been determined, but it is apparent that the process involves the interaction of several of these growth-regulating substances. (blogspot.com)
  • research
  • Since MB is redox-active, we investigated its effect on the NAD/NADH ratio in IMR90 cells.A previous research suggested that the pattern of AMPK activation (i.e., chronic or transient) determines the AMPK effect on cell senescence.Since MB lacked an effect on cell cycle, an MB-dependent change to cell cycle is unlikely to contribute to the anti-senescence activity. (nih.gov)
  • concentrations
  • NUTE and J82 cells were treated with different concentrations of PIO for various time periods. (medsci.org)
  • In kinetic partitioning, Hsp70s repetitively bind and release substrates in cycles that maintain low concentrations of free substrate. (wikipedia.org)