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  • desalination
  • Successful completion of this project will address a critical challenge in the field and bring this potentially transformative membrane significantly closer to commercialization for applications in organic solvent processing, oil and natural gas, as well as water purification and desalination. (sbirsource.com)
  • The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between oxygen content of graphene oxide and the efficiency of the material when used for the fabrication of desalination membranes. (asu.edu)
  • Exemplary applications of ion-exchange membranes utilized in electrodialysis and EDR include seawater desalination, industrial wastewater treatment of highly scaling waters, food and beverage production, and other industrial wastewaters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reissner's
  • Background: Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. (k-state.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. (k-state.edu)
  • Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b) nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3). (k-state.edu)
  • ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. (k-state.edu)
  • The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. (k-state.edu)
  • Cations
  • The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. (k-state.edu)
  • Sodium
  • This unique property gives this high capacity -pH insensitive membrane particular value in electrolytic cells as hydraulic diaphragms to separate a basic solution from an acid solution as is encountered in caustic-chlorine cells or other type cells which electrolytically decompose neutral salt solutions such as sodium sulfate into their basic and acidic components of caustic soda and sodium acid sulfate. (google.com)
  • hydrogen
  • This technology adapts commercial hydrogen selectivity membrane technology for downhole deployment in wellbores for in-situ hydrogen production by gasification. (gc.ca)
  • Permeant
  • In a typical membrane system the incoming feed stream is separated into two components: permeant and retentate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Permeant is the gas that travels across the membrane and the retentate is what is left of the feed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of light-gated ion channels in a specific cell type through promoter control allows for the regulation of cell potential by either depolarizing the membrane to 0 mV for cation-permeant channelrhodopsin or by holding the voltage at -67 mV for anion-conducting channelrhodopsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best-characterized members of the human Ent family, hENT1 and hENT2, possess similar broad permeant selectivities for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, but hENT2 also efficiently transports nucleobases. (wikipedia.org)
  • hENT3 has a similar broad permeant selectivity for nucleosides and nucleobases and appears to function in intracellular membranes, including lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterize
  • The approach considered using the methods of mathematical statistics to characterize the membrane is promising for the classification and identification of type-size series of membranes with different materials, structures, synthesis methods, for more accurate labeling of membranes of one type, for a reliable study the conditions for obtaining membranes with improved separation properties, and may also serve as additional tool in the development of membrane separation. (m-zharkikh.name)
  • We managed to produce and characterize these membranes for this application. (utwente.nl)
  • flux
  • The effect is referred as concentration polarization and, occurring during the filtration, leads to a reduced trans-membrane flow (flux). (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentration polarization is, in principle, reversible by cleaning the membrane which results in the initial flux being almost totally restored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alteration
  • Alteration of membrane characteristics were analyzed by various techniques like contact angle, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • potential
  • If the transported substance has a net electrical charge, it will move not only in response to a concentration gradient, but also to an electrochemical gradient due to the membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potassium current is driven by the difference in glial syncytium membrane potential and local potassium equilibrium potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential: transmembrane potential-covered in this page. (wikipedia.org)
  • in many cases the term "membrane potential" refers to the transmembrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • dipole potential surface potential Membrane potential (also transmembrane potential or membrane voltage) is the difference in electric potential between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • With respect to the exterior of the cell, typical values of membrane potential range from -40 mV to -80 mV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane potential has two basic functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signals are generated by opening or closing of ion channels at one point in the membrane, producing a local change in the membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-excitable cells, and in excitable cells in their baseline states, the membrane potential is held at a relatively stable value, called the resting potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • In excitable cells, a sufficiently large depolarization can evoke an action potential, in which the membrane potential changes rapidly and significantly for a short time (on the order of 1 to 100 milliseconds), often reversing its polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neurons, the factors that influence the membrane potential are diverse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane potential in a cell derives ultimately from two factors: electrical force and diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once channelrhosopsin had been identified and characterized, the channel's ion selectivity was modified in order to control membrane potential through optogenetic control. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have an advantage over other types of ion channel regulation in that they provide non-invasive, reversible membrane potential changes with fine temporal and spatial control granted by induction through laser stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before an action potential occurs, the axonal membrane is at its normal resting potential, and Na+ channels are in their deactivated state, blocked on the extracellular side by their activation gates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Closure of the inactivation gate causes Na+ flow through the channel to stop, which in turn causes the membrane potential to stop rising. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the Na+ channel no longer contributing to the membrane potential, the potential decreases back to its resting potential as the neuron repolarizes and subsequently hyperpolarizes itself. (wikipedia.org)