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  • survival
  • Additional studies have demonstrated genetic variability in growth and survival on different plants, but unless there is a behavioral component these are not treated in any detail here. (springer.com)
  • critics
  • A number of literary critics have found the principles of sexual selection particularly relevant to Austen's novels, with their focus on the complex dynamics of courtship, especially from the woman's point of view. (jasna.org)
  • Critics of genetic selection for deafness consider deafness to be a disability that limits a child's potential. (iit.edu)
  • species
  • Taking this into account, we hypothesized that host selection may facilitate changes in the host-associated microbial species and in their response to environmental selection pressure. (elifesciences.org)
  • selects
  • Fitness scaling converts the membership scores in a range suitable for the selection function which selects the parents of the next generation. (mdpi.com)
  • suggests
  • The paper recommends practical application of the analyses and suggests a number of paths for more detailed analytical investigation of selection techniques. (psu.edu)
  • females
  • 1 According to Charles Darwin (in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex ), sexual selection involves two components: male competition with other males for access to females and female choice of the most appealing males. (jasna.org)
  • evolutionary
  • New research from the University of East Anglia shows that an evolutionary force known as 'sexual selection' can explain the persistence of sex as a dominant mechanism for reproducing offspring. (phys.org)
  • basis
  • Specifically, proportionate reproduction, ranking selection, tournament selection, and Genitor (or «steady state') selection are compared on the basis of solutions to deterministic difference or differential equations, which are verified through computer simulations. (psu.edu)
  • effect
  • To investigate the additional genetic effect of this program, a genetic-epidemiological model was developed to assess the effect of selection of cows that test negative for Johne's disease (dam selection). (wur.nl)
  • The genetic effect of selection at the sire level was also considered (sire selection), assuming selection of 80% of sires producing the most resistant offspring based on their breeding values, as well as the combined effect. (wur.nl)
  • The effect of selection was measured by the time in years required to eliminate infection. (wur.nl)
  • Vacchio, M. S., Ryan, J. J., and Hodes, R. J.: Characterization of the ligand(s) responsible for negative selection of Vβ 11- and Vβ 12-expressing T cells: effect of a new Mls determinant. (springer.com)
  • frequency
  • I've tried to avoid the alphabet soup of acronyms for tests for selection in the above discussion, but people who have read papers using these tests will recognize tests based on haplotype homozygosity or the site frequency spectrum as tests of the latter type, and tests based on FST as tests of the first type (there are also tests like XP-EHH which combine aspects of the two). (genomesunzipped.org)
  • increase
  • Both scenarios have in common that, if there is no systematic bias for the gene interactions, epistasis can only increase the long-term response to selection. (eurekalert.org)
  • differences
  • Studies of heritable differences in behavior among phytophagous insects received little attention until recently, and we hope that by emphasizing the need, the genetics of host-plant selection will be examined further. (springer.com)
  • Improvement
  • This book would be a valuable guide to the under-graduates and post-graduates of agricultural universities and institutes that are interested and/or involved in genetic improvement of crop plants using modern tools. (springer.com)