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  • dispersers
  • Conservation of tropical forests requires an understanding of the seasonal patterns of abundance and distribution of important seed dispersers. (rice.edu)
  • Seed dispersal is a process critical to the maintenance of tropical forests, yet little is known about the interactions of most dispersers with their communities. (rice.edu)
  • Understanding the scope of this problem and developing predictions for the impact of seed disperser loss on plant diversity requires knowledge of the ways in which dispersers benefit their plant mutualists and how the loss of these benefits influence plant population dynamics. (washington.edu)
  • These seed-laden rodents are commonly consumed by snakes as they forage, but unlike raptors, coyotes, bobcats, and other endothermic predators which eat rodents and are known or implicated to be secondary seed dispersers, the role of snakes in seed dispersal remains unexplored. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The tremendous diversity of floral and fruit traits is, to a large extent, a set of adaptations that promote plant reproduction through animal pollinators and seed dispersers. (sciencemag.org)
  • Fleshy fruits have evolved independently in more than half of extant angiosperm families ( 2 ), indicating that the need to offer an attractive reward to seed dispersers exerts a strong selection pressure on fruit traits. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the degree to which fruit traits should be attributed to selection pressures exerted by seed dispersers is still debated. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, more recent comparative studies have addressed these issues and suggest that a substantial portion of the variance in fruit traits can be explained by selection pressures exerted by seed dispersers ( 5 , 9 - 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Fruit traits that have been attributed to selection by seed dispersers include, among others, size ( 4 , 10 , 14 ), shape ( 15 ), and location and presentation on the branch ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Fruit scent has long been suggested to play a similar role in mediating the interaction between plants and olfactorily oriented seed dispersers. (sciencemag.org)
  • This display is exactly what you would expect for bird seed dispersers. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Seed dispersers are critical to the forest's ability to grow and regenerate. (hhmi.org)
  • birds
  • These seeds are an important part of the diet of birds, squirrels, and some larger animals. (jmgkids.us)
  • Birds, squirrels, and even some larger animals eat acorns, and often times they will leave some acorn seeds laying around. (jmgkids.us)
  • We used DNA-based genotyping techniques on Prunus mahaleb seeds dispersed by birds (small- and medium-sized passerines) and carnivorous mammals to infer each seed's source tree, dispersal distance, and the probability of having originated from outside the study population. (pnas.org)
  • When the quantitative contribution to fruit removal was accounted for, mammals were responsible for introducing two-thirds of the immigrant seeds into the population, whereas birds accounted for one-third. (pnas.org)
  • For example, large-sized mammals and birds can transport large quantities of seeds over long distances, thereby connecting distant populations ( 6 , 14 - 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, small- to medium-sized birds tend to deposit seeds near the source tree, although they are capable of dispersing seeds much further ( 19 - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because seed rescue and secondary dispersal in snakes has yet to be investigated, and because numerous other snake species consume granivorous and frugivorous birds and mammals, our observations offer direction for further empirical studies of this unusual but potentially important channel for seed dispersal. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Primary seed dispersal occurs when seeds fall below the adult tree by gravity, or are dispersed away by birds or flying mammals. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Moreover, even the more complex measures of numbers of foraging birds, foraging times and products of these in the computed consumption intensity and seed dispersal efficiency were positively correlated to visitation frequency. (sun.ac.za)
  • Intricate photographic and experimental approaches were applied to obtain precise numerical data on seed removal rates by birds from the alien and indigenous shrubs. (sun.ac.za)
  • In compliance with this proposal, canopy fruit mass and monosaccharide content were all positively correlated with the total numbers of seeds removed by birds and viable seeds excreted by birds. (sun.ac.za)
  • Only defecated seeds of the indigenous C. monilifera and alien L. camara displayed enhanced germination following their ingestion by birds Seed dispersal distances of alien and indigenous shrubs by birds were estimated from published records of bird body masses, gut retention times of consumed seed and flight speeds. (sun.ac.za)
  • All produce sticky seeds spread by birds. (britannica.com)
  • Ecology
  • In addition, I will address the following hypotheses: (1) there are species-specific differences in seed dispersal behavior and ecology among toucans (Ramphastidae), and (2) that hunting will impact frugivore densities, movements, and subsequent seed and seedling shadows. (epa.gov)
  • frugivore
  • The likely result is that a few key frugivore species may contribute disproportionately to seed-mediated gene flow, population connectivity, and genetic structure. (pnas.org)
  • How can one determine which frugivore species dispersed a given seed and which tree was the source for that seed? (pnas.org)
  • To test these hypotheses, I plan to estimate seed shadows generated by toucans (the frugivore perspective), as well as the actual seed and seedling shadows of V. flexuosa (the plant perspective). (epa.gov)
  • Rather than being randomly distributed across taxa, their traits tend to be correlated and often go hand in hand with dispersal by only a share of the frugivore community ( 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • kernels
  • The single-distribution dispersal kernels frequently used to model dispersal substantially underestimated this variance and poorly fit the simulated seed-dispersal curve, primarily because of its multimodality, and a mixture distribution always fit the simulated dispersal curve better. (unl.edu)
  • adaptations
  • However, in Amazonian floodplain trees dispersal syndromes are closely linked to water, with all necessary adaptations enhancing floatation and attractiveness for fish. (springer.com)
  • Plant evolution is largely driven by adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies that allow diversification into new niches. (frontiersin.org)
  • dynamics
  • Seed dispersal fundamentally influences plant population and community dynamics but is difficult to quantify directly. (unl.edu)
  • An important function of seed dispersal models is to use the seed shadows they predict to estimate components of plant demography, particularly seedling population dynamics and distributions. (unl.edu)
  • Dispersal may be favoured at geographic range edges by unstable populationand metapopulation dynamics. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Aguiar MR, Sala OE (1997) Seed distribution constrains the dynamics of the Patagonian steppe. (springer.com)
  • densities
  • The model was parameterized from field-collected data on fruit production and seed dispersal, behaviors and movement patterns of the key disperser, the spider monkey ( Ateles paniscus ), densities of dispersed and non-dispersed seeds, and direct estimates of seed dispersal distances. (unl.edu)
  • germinate
  • By examining the entire gut we discovered, furthermore, that secondarily ingested seeds can germinate in rattlesnake colons. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For a fast and well timed establishment, seeds must germinate fast and they need adequate nutrient reserves. (springer.com)
  • 1981
  • Fleming TH, Heithaus ER (1981) Frugivorous bat, seed shadows, and the structure of tropical forests. (springer.com)
  • Frugivores
  • Thus, dispersal distance and microhabitat of seed deposition were linked through the contrasting behaviors of different frugivores. (pnas.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that frugivores differ widely in their effects on seed-mediated gene flow. (pnas.org)
  • For instance, seeds already dispersed by animal frugivores can be significantly reshuffled by water ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Functional roles of different types of frugivores are well documented for the fruit removal stage of dispersal but not for the seed deposition stage. (pnas.org)
  • microsite
  • In this study, we explore the role of microsite and post-dispersal seed predation on the seedling emergence of two species from advanced successional stages (Rhamnus lycioides, Quercus coccifera), three species from degraded stages (Cistus clusii, Helianthemum violaceum, Anthyllis terniflora), and of the dominant species (Stipa tenacissima). (csic.es)
  • This article examines litter cover and microsite effects on seed availability at a saline site revegetated with Eucalyptus sargentii tree rows interplanted with 5-6 rows of saltbush ( Atriplex spp. (springer.com)
  • patterns
  • The simulated seed shadow was heterogeneous, with high spatial variance in seed density resulting largely from behaviors and movement patterns of spider monkeys that aggregated seeds (dispersal at their sleeping sites) and that scattered seeds (dispersal during diurnal foraging and resting). (unl.edu)
  • Seed movements and fates are important for restoration as these determine spatial patterns of recruitment and ultimately shape plant communities. (springer.com)
  • shrub
  • We quantified successful seed-mediated dispersal of the dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in a fragmented landscape across northwestern Europe by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. (ugent.be)
  • Vanden Broeck A, Gruwez R, Cox K, Adriaenssens S, Michalczyk IM, Verheyen K. Genetic structure and seed-mediated dispersal rates of an endangered shrub in a fragmented landscape: a case study for Juniperus communis in northwestern Europe. (ugent.be)
  • terrestrial
  • Terrestrial vertebrates congregated seeds in caches located 41.90┬▒2.43m from the nearest adult individual of D. oleifera . (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Soil
  • These hairs are hygroscopic and when they reach place where sufficient moisture is present in the air, the hairs collapse and the seeds settle down on the soil. (botanystudies.com)
  • Spatial distribution of dispersed and in-soil seeds was measured by the clumping index. (universidadeuropea.es)
  • unviable
  • Besides, the odds ratio regression models results showed that the overall effect of unviable seeds was a reduction in viable seed predation rate. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • viable
  • 1986 ). From these accounts, annual seed production in dense infestations equates to more than one million viable seeds per square meter. (springer.com)
  • plant seeds
  • Mallards are among the most abundant and widespread duck species in the world, yet little attention has been paid to date to their role in spreading plant seeds. (sciencenewsdaily.org)
  • 8 min 3 sec) Watch researchers follow brown spider monkeys in a tropical forest of Colombia to determine which plant seeds they are dispersing. (hhmi.org)
  • semi-arid
  • Caballero I, Olano J, Luzuriaga A, Escudero A (2005) Spatial coherence between seasonal seed banks in a semi-arid gypsum community: density changes but structure does not. (springer.com)
  • shadows
  • Ultimately, I will compare toucan-generated seed shadows (from radio telemetry and gut passage rates) with seed and seedling shadows specific to V. flexuosa (using microsatellites). (epa.gov)