• At least four nonclassical (unconventional) protein secretion pathways have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene clusters encoding WXG-like proteins and FtsK/SpoIIIE-like P loop ATPases in Firmicutes encode type 7b secretion systems (T7bSS) for the transport of select protein substrates. (asm.org)
  • Membrane traffic wardens and protein secretion in gram-negative bacteria. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. (pnas.org)
  • Over the past five years, the research group of Dr. Geibel has worked intensively on the stable reconstitution of one of these secretion machines and the preparation of the sensitive sample for measurements on the cryo electron microscope, which requires the protein complexes to be shock frozen under defined conditions. (news-medical.net)
  • John, C. Targeted Secretion Inhibitors-Innovative Protein Therapeutics. (mdpi.com)
  • Six distinct secretion systems have been shown to mediate protein export through the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. (genome.jp)
  • It was of interest, therefore, to ascertain whether leucocytic secretions could increase the natural hemolytic effect of hen serum on sheep or rabbit erythrocytes, and whether these secretions would become more active under the influence of a foreign protein. (rupress.org)
  • Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered that a single protein regulates secretion levels in the fruit fly s salivary gland and its skin-like outer layer. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The researchers discovered that a protein called CrebA single-handedly controls the entire set of events leading to secretion in the fruit fly s salivary gland and epidermis, its skin-like outer layer. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Here we identify a novel protein RIC-7 that is required for neuropeptide secretion in Caenorhabditis elegans. (harvard.edu)
  • The bacterial type 6 secretion system (T6SS) functions as a virulence factor capable of attacking both eukaryotic and prokaryotic target cells by a process that involves protein transport through a contractile bacteriophage tail-like structure. (sciencemag.org)
  • Among the topics included in this conference are: mechanisms of nutrient sensing linked to protein secretion, protein modification in the secretory pathway in relation to neurological disease, protein secretion in relation to obesity, proteases and Alzheimer's Disease, and prohormone convertases and hypercholesterolemia. (grc.org)
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Protein Processing, Trafficking and Secretion (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
  • Furthermore, IFN-γ-induced secretion was dependent on tyrosine protein kinase activity. (cambridge.org)
  • They include 1) direct translocation of proteins across the plasma membrane likely through membrane transporters, 2) blebbing, 3) lysosomal secretion, and 4) release via exosomes derived from multivesicular bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or toxins (such as cholera toxin in pathogenic bacteria for example Vibrio cholerae) from across the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a bacterial cell to its exterior. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of researchers, including Tomonori Kimura, a researcher at the Department of Nephrology, Osaka University (the research was conducted at the University of New Mexico, USA), identified the molecular machinery by which autophagy mediates secretion of the inflammatory cytokine*2, interleukin-1 beta, in corporation with SNARE proteins*3. (eurekalert.org)
  • Therefore, the newly-identified autophagy-dependent secretory system facilitates the secretion of leaderless proteins*4, and plays fundamental roles in this secretion. (eurekalert.org)
  • Signal peptides are short peptides in proteins through which proteins are bound for specific cellular distribution or secretion. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, phosphorylation studies have identified substrate proteins that may correspond to those involved in smooth muscle contraction, suggesting an analogy in the processes of stimulus secretion and excitation contraction. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Staphylococcus aureus T7bSS assembles in the bacterial membrane and promotes the secretion of WXG-like proteins and. (asm.org)
  • A number of bacterial proteins, some of which are involved in a general secretion pathway (GSP) for the export of proteins (also called the type II pathway) [ PMID: 8438237 ], have been found to be evolutionary related. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This entry represents type IV secretion system proteins TraG and VirD4. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • TraG-like proteins also function as essential components of type IV secretion systems of several bacterial pathogens. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • TraG-like proteins of DNA transfer systems and of the Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system: inner membrane gate for exported substrates? (ebi.ac.uk)
  • During infection Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main causative agent of tuberculosis, secretes a large number of effector proteins through type VII secretion systems - small nanomachines which are composed of proteins that reside in the cell envelope. (news-medical.net)
  • The resulting proteins are not neurotoxins, but a new class of biopharmaceuticals, Targeted Secretion Inhibitors (TSI), suitable for the treatment of a wide range of diseases where secretion plays a major role. (mdpi.com)
  • TSI proteins inhibit secretion for a prolonged period following a single application, making them particularly suited to the treatment of chronic diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • Many bacteria use type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to translocate proteins and nucleic acids into target cells, which promotes DNA transfer and host infection. (asm.org)
  • Biogenesis of the Coxiella -containing vacuole (CCV) requires effector proteins delivered into the host cell cytosol by the type 4B secretion system (T4BSS). (asm.org)
  • These proteins have a high degree of conservation across type six secretion systems, and have been experimentally determined to be required for T6SS function, but their exact purpose remains unclear . (kenyon.edu)
  • One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. (wiley.com)
  • Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. (wiley.com)
  • Macnab, 2004 ), the term 'Type III secretion system' is generally used in reference to the systems translocating effector proteins into host cells. (wiley.com)
  • Given that the type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been recognized as a frequently used molecular weapon, it is not at all surprising that it is found widely distributed throughout diverse bacterial species (around 25% of all gram-negatives) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Several Acinetobacter species carry one functional type VI secretion system (T6SS). (asm.org)
  • The outcome of such competition can be affected by the type VI secretion system (T6SS), an intercellular killing mechanism of bacteria. (asm.org)
  • In bacteria, it is necessary for the assembly of the T6SS , and is theorized to be involved in the association of the secretion system with the internal membrane . (kenyon.edu)
  • Tissues in humans that produce secretions include the gastrointestinal tract which secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid , the lung which secretes surfactants , and sebaceous glands which secrete sebum to lubricate the skin and hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of gastric secretion can be divided into three phases (cephalic, gastric, and intestinal) that depend upon the primary mechanisms that cause the gastric mucosa to secrete gastric juice. (britannica.com)
  • Hepatocytes secrete bile acids and conjugated products into the bile canaliculi, which then are modified by cholangiocytes through secretion of bicarbonate and water to give rise to the final secreted bile. (nih.gov)
  • Gram-negative bacteria have two membranes, thus making secretion topologically more complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are at least six specialized secretion systems in gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific features of protease secretion pathways and the mechanisms of protease activation are discussed with particular reference to some of the best-characterized extracellular proteases produced by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • The Type VI Secretion System is the most recently discovered of the six mechanisms for effector secretion elucidated in gram-negative bacteria, particularly notable for its significant structural homology with T4 bacteriophage . (kenyon.edu)
  • The link between a rise in [Ca 2+ [(and the terminal event of exocytosis is the least-understood aspect of stimulus-secretion coupling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Secretion of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides is mediated by exocytosis of distinct secretory organelles, synaptic vesicles (SVs) and dense core vesicles (DCVs) respectively. (harvard.edu)
  • Merocrine secretions are products of exocytosis, where secretions travel from secretory cells into the epithelial duct, and then into the lumen. (reference.com)
  • Finally, down-regulation of Munc13-4 using small interfering RNA decreases exocytosis of tertiary granules in PLB-985 cells, whereas overexpression of Munc13-4 enhances secretion of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) from tertiary granules. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent studies have begun to offer evidence that many pituitary hormones which have been observed to be released episodically are preceded by pulsatile secretion of its associated releasing hormone from the hypothalamus in a similar pulastile fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Did you know that the oft-spoken 'metabolic rate' is, in fact, a measure of the rate of secretion, blood levels and action of certain hormones? (healthguidance.org)
  • Let us have a closer look at how the kind of exercise you do influences the secretion of hormones. (healthguidance.org)
  • Thus, CrossFit type of workouts - since these are associated with compound exercises, higher poundage, higher reps and almost no rest at all - are more likely to be associated with increased secretion of the lean muscle building hormones that stress hormones (cortisol). (healthguidance.org)
  • The interactions between milk removal, the systemic factors stimulating the gland to produce milk, such as several hormones, and the local factors that inhibit further milk secretion are examined. (coursera.org)
  • Secretion of incretin hormones, particularly glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1), also increased more after the vegan meal. (pcrm.org)
  • A proximal step in the cascade of events required for stimulus-secretion coupling is the closure of ATP-sensitive K + channels, resulting in cell depolarization. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A multiauthor monograph on the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of transepithelial ion and water transport, macromolecular production, stimulus-secretion coupling, control of gastric secretion and the exocrine pancreas, hepatobiliary secretion, normal and abnormal small intestinal function, and secretory-motility relations. (annals.org)
  • Also, excessive dietary FAs stimulate intestine enterocyte incretin secretion, further elevating GSIS, even at low glucose levels, thus contributing to diabetic hyperinsulinemia. (mdpi.com)
  • Interaction of corneal nociceptive stimulation and lacrimal secretion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Immediately after each stimulus, tear meniscus height (TMH) was measured using optical coherence tomography to quantify the amount of lacrimal secretion, and subjects reported whether they felt tears starting to accumulate in their eyes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Progesterone prevents sleep disturbances and modulates GH, TSH, and melatonin secretion in postmenopausal women. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Cataract surgery was associated with an increase in melatonin secretion, which in low concentrations, has been shown to contribute to depression, diabetes, cognitive impairment, and breast cancer, according to study findings published in JAMA Ophthalmology . (ajmc.com)
  • This effect on the circadian alignment also results in an increase in the concentrations of melatonin secretion. (ajmc.com)
  • As study authors note, "melatonin secretion is an important indicator of the human circadian biological rhythm. (ajmc.com)
  • Additionally, a low concentration of melatonin secretion is associated with depression, diabetes , cognitive impairment, and breast cancer. (ajmc.com)
  • Until now, the study authors noted that randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have yet to examine the relationship between cataract surgery and melatonin secretion in patients. (ajmc.com)
  • The findings of the present study appear to support the hypothesis that cataract surgery increases melatonin secretion at 3 months postoperatively," said the study authors. (ajmc.com)
  • Effects of cataract surgery on melatonin secretion in adults 60 years and older [published online March 5, (ajmc.com)
  • The classical mechanism of cell secretion is via secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called porosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Also originating at the basolateral domain, InsP3 formation due to M3 acetylcholine activation induces Ca 2+ release from the ER, which activates Cl − secretion through TMEM16A on the apical membrane. (nih.gov)
  • The Cl − gradient across the apical membrane drives the AE2 exchanger, resulting in HCO3 − secretion and alkalization of the bile. (nih.gov)
  • It is thus critical for the assembly of the membrane-bound components, which have been theorized to form a ring around the phage-like components, similar to structures described in Type III and IV Secretion Systems . (kenyon.edu)
  • Holocrine secretions are produced in the cytoplasm of cells and are secreted into the lumen when the plasma membrane is ruptured. (reference.com)
  • Here the molecular mechanisms regulating bile secretion in cholangiocytes are reviewed. (nih.gov)
  • However, our understanding of the mechanisms of procollagen secretion remains limited. (nih.gov)
  • We thus provide functional evidence that genetically increased hepatic sortilin expression both reduces hepatic APOB secretion and increases LDL catabolism, providing dual mechanisms for the very strong association between increased hepatic sortilin expression and reduced plasma LDL-C levels in humans. (jci.org)
  • Accordingly, how gonadotropin secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor cells promote coagulation and inflammation through various mechanisms, including overexpression of tissue factor ( 2 ), the initiator of the coagulation cascade, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines ( 3 , 4 ) and of metalloproteinases ( 5 ), which lead to endothelial activation, an important step in thrombosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • consequently, we were interested in determining whether Spo14 was regulated by these same mechanisms when required for secretion. (genetics.org)
  • Adrenergic modulation of glucagon secretion in obese humans. (springer.com)
  • The component of a meal acts as potent stimulants of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. (hindawi.com)
  • In recent years, there has been a great interest in developing effective methods to regulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. (hindawi.com)
  • Subjects covered include the interplay of the various epithelial ion channels, the underlying intracellular signal transduction, mucus secretion, and novel approaches to develop drugs against cystic fibrosis. (bokus.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells , including human cells , have a highly evolved process of secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion pulses emanating form free beta cells not located within an islet of Lagerhans has been observed to be highly variable (2 to 10 minutes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretions in humans can be produced by a single cell or by a group of cells commonly called a gland. (infoplease.com)
  • Plant secretions include nectar and various enzymes concerned with the digestion of nutrients within the plant cells. (infoplease.com)
  • Bile secretion results from the concerted activity of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line the bile ducts. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse embryonic hippocampal (mHippo E18) cells expressed NPY4Rs and their activation by PP consistently decreased somatostatin secretion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present condition of the technique of cultivation of tissues, the only possible way of studying leucocytic secretions was to grow colonies of leucocytes in a medium of known properties and to examine the modifications of these properties under the influence of the living cells. (rupress.org)
  • In the fluids extracted from the cultures, we attempted to detect the presence of the leucocytic secretions through their physiological effects on homologous and foreign cells. (rupress.org)
  • The secretion by leucocytes of substances necessary to the nutrition of other cells was considered as probable long ago. (rupress.org)
  • The glycated serum (GS) and high levels of glucose (HG) may directly alter the function of neuroendocrine cells secreting this hormone by regulating different pathways of GLP-1 secretion [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. (frontiersin.org)
  • The secretion of cholecystokinin was examined in STC-1 cells, an intestinal cholecystokinin (CCK)secreting cell line. (rti.org)
  • L-Phenylalanine-induced secretion of CCK was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker diltiazem (10 mu M). L-Phenylalanine (20 mM) also significantly increased cytosolic calcium levels in fura 2-acetoxymethyl ester (fura 2-AM)-loaded cells, and this increase was diltiazem sensitive. (rti.org)
  • Treatment of STC-1 cells with 300 ng/ml of pertussis toxin for either 4 or 24 h did not significantly affect either basal release of CCK or L-phenylalanine-stimulated secretion. (rti.org)
  • Described in the May 15 issue of Development, the finding improves understanding of how cells become specialized for secretion, which is a critical ability of certain glands and cell types in organisms from insects to humans. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Benign tumors in the pituitary gland lead to uncontrolled secretion of the stress hormone cortisol by the cells of the adrenal cortex. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The Sec system constituting the Sec Y-E-G complex (see Type II secretion system (T2SS), below) is another conserved secretion system, homologous to the translocon in the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and the Sec 61 translocon complex of yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I secretion is a chaperone dependent secretion system employing the Hly and Tol gene clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The findings of the researchers lead to a deeper functional understanding of Type VII secretion systems. (news-medical.net)
  • In times of rising resistance of mycobacteria to the antibiotics in use and no effective vaccination against tuberculosis in place, the researcher provide an important basis for the development of novel antibiotics that target the assembly or function of the type VII secretion systems. (news-medical.net)
  • 2019) Architecture of the mycobacterial type VII secretion system. (news-medical.net)
  • Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) have been phylogenetically grouped into two subfamilies. (asm.org)
  • The goal of this project is to address this critical medical need by identifying specific inhibitors of the type-three secretion system (T3SS) and developing them into novel therapeutic agents against P. aeruginosa. (sbir.gov)
  • Type-three secretion is a mechanism used by many pathogenic bacteria to increase their virulence in human infections. (sbir.gov)
  • This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model. (wiley.com)
  • Moreover, when type III secretion genes were first identified, it appeared that some of them were also related to flagellar genes (Fields et al . (wiley.com)
  • This suggests that the prevention of intratumor hemorrhage by platelets relies on the secretion of the content of platelet granules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Secretion systems are a particular kind of molecular weapon as they release or inject molecules and substrates that interact not only with hosts and predators but also with bacterial competitors. (pnas.org)
  • Considerable advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular machinery involved in vesicular secretion. (frontiersin.org)
  • This book brings together physicians, physiologists, and other scientists involved in basic research, from molecular biology to drug design and introduces novel investigative and therapeutic aspects of secretion disorders relevant in cystic fibrosis and related diseases. (bokus.com)
  • Ion channels in secretory granules of the pancreas: Molecular identification and their role in regulated secretion. (bokus.com)
  • Pulsatile secretion can be critical to hormone function, as evidenced by the case of GnRH agonists , which cause functional inhibition of the receptor for GnRH due to profound downregulation in response to constant stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Noxious mechanical and chemical stimuli evoked measurable tear secretion, with central corneal mechanical stimulation evoking the strongest lacrimation reflex. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Central mechanical corneal stimulation is the most effective stimulus-position pairing and appears to be the major sensory driving force for reflex tear secretion by the lacrimal functional unit. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their natural surrounding environment for adaptation and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pulsatile secretion is a biochemical phenomenon observed in a wide variety of cell types, in which chemical products are secreted in a regular pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulsatile secretion is a biochemical phenomenon in which a chemical, such as a hormone, is secreted in a burst-like or episodic manner rather than constantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data indicate that Spo14 phosphorylation and relocalization are essential for the process of sporulation, but dispensable for Sec14-independent secretion. (genetics.org)
  • Analyses of mutant alleles suggest that PtdIns(4,5)P 2 activation is the primary regulator of Spo14 PLD activity in secretion, while phosphorylation and relocalization, in addition to PtdIns(4,5)P 2 , regulate the enzyme during meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • secretion, in biology, substance elaborated by the living material of an animal or plant. (infoplease.com)