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  • Research
  • As a consequence, several countries have prohibited human cloning but are racing forward with stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Two years ago, the Australian government decided to allow human embryos existing in fertility clinics to be used in stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • U.S. studies have gone at a slower pace, a consequence of President Bush's decision to limit federal funding of stem-cell research to a small number of lines. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Those issues are examined in some detail in the recently issued report of the President's Council on Bioethics, "Monitoring Stem Cell Research," available at www.bioethics.gov. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man. (bioethics.net)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • Led by gynecologist Zhang Lizhu, the PUTH research team had devoted more than four years to the human IVF-ET project. (asu.edu)
  • Historians of science have noted that the use of lysogenic bacteria as a model in microbiological research influenced the scientific achievements of the Pasteur Institute's scientists. (asu.edu)
  • We describe and discuss ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, therapeutic potential and clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and safety issues of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy. (medsci.org)
  • Federal funding of research using existing embryonic stem cell lines is consistent with the President's belief in the fundamental value and sanctity of human life. (archives.gov)
  • The President's decision reflects his fundamental commitment to preserving the value and sanctity of human life and his desire to promote vital medical research. (archives.gov)
  • Federal funding of medical research on these existing stem cell lines will promote the sanctity of life " without undermining it " and will allow scientists to explore the potential of this research to benefit the lives of millions of people who suffer from life destroying diseases. (archives.gov)
  • In order to ensure that federal funds are used to support only stem cell research that is scientifically sound, legal, and ethical, the NIH will examine the derivation of all existing stem cell lines and create a registry of those lines that satisfy this criteria. (archives.gov)
  • Today's decision relates only to the use of federal funds for research on existing stem cell lines derived in accordance with the criteria set forth above. (archives.gov)
  • The potential of embryonic stem cell research. (archives.gov)
  • To create embryonic stem cells for research, a "stem cell line" must be created from the inner cell mass of a week-old embryo. (archives.gov)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of May 2019 [update] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. (stanford.edu)
  • The main goal of HESC research is to identify the mechanisms that govern cell differentiation and to turn HESCs into specific cell types that can be used for treating debilitating and life-threatening diseases and injuries. (stanford.edu)
  • Despite the tremendous therapeutic promise of HESC research, the research has met with heated opposition because the harvesting of HESCs involves the destruction of the human embryo. (stanford.edu)
  • Opponents of HESC research argue that the research is morally impermissible because it involves the unjust killing of innocent human beings. (stanford.edu)
  • However, at present, the consensus in the scientific community is that both HESC and iPSC research should be pursued, as we do not yet know whether iPSCs have the same potential as HESCs or whether it is safe to transplant them into humans. (stanford.edu)
  • While the principal source of the controversy surrounding HESC research lies in competing views about the value of human embryonic life, the scope of ethical issues in HESC research is broader than the question of the ethics of destroying human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • If looked at from a strictly consequentialist perspective, it's almost certainly the case that the potential health benefits from the research outweigh the loss of embryos involved and whatever suffering results from that loss for persons who want to protect embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • However, most of those who oppose the research argue that the constraints against killing innocent persons to promote social utility apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, as long as we accept non-consequentialist constraints on killing persons, those supporting HESC research must respond to the claim that those constraints apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • The standard view of those who oppose HESC research is that a human being begins to exist with the emergence of the one-cell zygote at fertilization. (stanford.edu)
  • Harvard alumnus James L. Sherley, M.D., Ph.D., a professor in the Biological Engineering department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has "come out" with his opposition to cloning and destructive embryonic stem cell research. (lifeethics.org)
  • This promise was the earliest misleading misinformation from proponents of human embryo research. (lifeethics.org)
  • This report discusses issues regarding stem cell research. (unt.edu)
  • With certain restrictions, the President has announced that federal funds may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. (unt.edu)
  • BAC's deliberations on embryonic stem cell research helped shape the government policies that helped Singapore pursue its goal of becoming one of the biggest investors of embryonic stem cell research in the early twenty-first century. (asu.edu)
  • One biomedical endeavor the government sought to fund was embryonic stem cell (ESC) research. (asu.edu)
  • By 2000, several countries had declared their stances on the legality of conducting and funding embryonic stem cell research , many with the aid of institutional bioethics boards. (asu.edu)
  • For example, the Human Genetics Subcommittee was created in 2001 and the Subcommittee on Research Involving Human Participants was created in 2007. (asu.edu)
  • In December 2000, BAC began to examine embryonic stem cell research . (asu.edu)
  • In the United Kingdom, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has granted permission to research groups at the Roslin Institute and the Newcastle Centre for Life. (bootstrike.com)
  • Proposals to use nucleus transfer techniques in human stem cell research raise a set of concerns beyond the moral status of any created embryo. (bootstrike.com)
  • According to the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the standard American source on stem cell research, three characteristics of stem cells differentiate them from other cell types: (1) they are unspecialized cells that (2) divide for long periods, renewing themselves and (3) can give rise to specialized cells, such as muscle and skin cells, under particular physiological and experimental conditions. (asu.edu)
  • Research on iPSCs, initiated by Shinya Yamanaka in 2006 and extended by James Thompson in 2007, has so far revealed the same properties as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), making their discovery potentially very beneficial for scientists and ethicists alike. (asu.edu)
  • Stem cell research is a promising field with an alluring potential for therapeutic intervention, and thus begs a critical understanding of the long-term consequences of stem cell replacement. (ukessays.com)
  • Research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. (ukessays.com)
  • In 1952, Hershey and his research assistant, Martha Chase, conducted phage experiments that convinced scientists that genes were made of DNA. (asu.edu)
  • In 1913 Franklin P. Mall, Professor of Anatomy at Johns Hopkins Medical School, applied for a Carnegie grant to support his research with human embryos. (asu.edu)
  • In 1952 Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King published their article, "Transplantation of Living Nuclei from Blastula Cells into Enucleated Frogs' Eggs," in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the culmination of a series of experiments conducted at the Institute for Cancer Research and Lankenau Hospital Research Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (asu.edu)
  • At the moment, the government would allow stem-cell research using embryos that are less than 14 days old and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The government's draft bill would allow surplus embryos to be used for medical research with the consent of the egg and sperm donors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Mr. Rock's draft appeared only after the government received polling data showing that most Canadians would allow the use of donated embryos for stem-cell research. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The poll suggested that 86 per cent of Canadians would allow use of embryos in research with proper government regulation. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The federal government does not provide funding for scientific research involving stem cells, but has received patent applications from biotech firms planning to clone embryos for research purposes. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Federal funding will apply only to research using existing embryonic stem-cell lines, that is, stem cells already harvested from destroyed embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • want to halt stem-cell research that uses fertilized human eggs. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • In a direct appeal to George W. Bush at the papal summer retreat on July 23rd, the Pope told the visiting U.S. President that the creation of human embryos for research purposes is morally wrong. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • In an anti-abortion statement read with Mr. Bush at his side, the Pope spoke of "evils such as euthanasia, infanticide and, most recently, proposals for the creation for research purposes of human embryos, destined to destruction in the process. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • But a Vatican spokesman said later that the Pope opposes any stem-cell research using embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Discussion of the bioethics of human stem cell research has transitioned from controversies over the source of human embryonic stem cells to concerns about the ethical use of stem cells in basic and clinical research. (jci.org)
  • Key areas in this evolving ethical discourse include the derivation and use of other human embryonic stem cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue and the use of all types of stem cells in clinical research. (jci.org)
  • Each of these issues is discussed as I summarize the past, present, and future bioethical issues in stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • The main bioethical issues associated with human stem cells involve their derivation and use for research. (jci.org)
  • This Review summarizes these and other bioethical issues of the past, present, and future of stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • From that point forward, hES cell research has been steeped in ethical controversy. (jci.org)
  • While public concerns such as these about science and its implications are not in themselves new, hES cell research offered the opportunity for all of these inchoate worries to coalesce around a single, new scientific field. (jci.org)
  • It is safe to say that, despite a host of other concerns about where science was leading us in the future, the ethical discourse over stem cell research for the past decade has been characterized predominantly by the debate over embryo destruction. (jci.org)
  • Those who oppose embryonic stem cell research believe for religious or other personal reasons that all preimplantation embryos have a moral standing equal to all living persons, regardless of whether they are located in a fertility clinic dish or in a woman's body. (jci.org)
  • In this view, destroying preimplantation embryos during the course of research is akin to murder and therefore never acceptable, no matter how noble the aims of the research may be. (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, supporters of embryonic stem cell research have pointed out that not all religious traditions grant full moral standing to early-stage human embryos. (jci.org)
  • F ive years ago, Michael West, the president of a small, privately funded biotech company called Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), asked me to help form an ethics advisory board to provide oversight for the company's planned research on human embryonic stem cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • I volunteered to help ACT's scientists pursue their research ambitions. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Many Americans oppose human embryonic stem cell research because it involves the destruction of embryos, which they regard as morally equivalent to you and me. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In August 2001, shortly after ACT's research began, President Bush announced a policy permitting federal funding for research on only a limited number of embryonic stem cell lines created before that date. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Stimulated by this research, state legislatures around the U.S. began considering funding stem cell research to fill the gap left by federal abandonment. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The recent news that almost all of the Korean work was fraudulent, however, has cast a pall over stem cell research and given ammunition to those who oppose it on ethical and religious grounds. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Reports on the approval given by the bioethics committee of Japan's Science and Technology Council for research involving the use of embryonic stem cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Discusses the government's delay in deciding whether to permit research into the therapeutic use of human embryonic stem cells in Great Britain. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this article the author focuses on the court ruling which emphasized the preclusion of an embryonic stem cell research project from receiving federal fundings by the Dickey-Wicker Amendment if one step of the project results in the destruction of an embryo in the U.S. (ebscohost.com)
  • The author reflects on U.S. President Barack Obama's executive order to lift limitations on federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article focuses on a research that develop synthetic variants of the Grb2 SH2 domain of proteins, which bound specifically to one single phosphotyrosine motif, in mouse embryonic stem cells using affinity clamp approach. (ebscohost.com)
  • Focuses on human embryonic stem (ES) cells research. (ebscohost.com)
  • Reports that London, England-based Nuffield Council on Bioethics has released a report stating that research on human embryonic stem cells for the treatment of disease should be allowed. (ebscohost.com)
  • Potential benefits offered by research on somatic cell nuclear transfer for derivation of stem cells or. (ebscohost.com)
  • An appendix is presented that shows an overview of the science of embryonic stem cell research. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Case for Stem Cell Research. (ebscohost.com)
  • An essay is presented on the delay of the progress of embryonic stem cell research for the treatment of various diseases due to debates regarding the use of human embryos in the research. (ebscohost.com)
  • The California Stem Cell Research and Cures Act, also called Proposition 71, was a ballot initiative proposed by California voters in 2004 to allocate three billion dollars of state funds for stem cell research over ten years. (asu.edu)
  • Endorsed by California scientists and patient-advocates, Prop 71 passed on 2 November 2004, amending the state constitution to make stem cell research a constitutional right. (asu.edu)
  • Convened during a nationwide cloning and embryonic stem cell research debate, the Council stated that it worked to address arguments about ethics from many different perspectives. (asu.edu)
  • Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research: Executive Summary was published in September 1999 by The US National Bioethics Advisory Commission in response to a national debate about whether or not the US federal government should fund embryonic stem cell research. (asu.edu)
  • Stem cell research is one of the hot fields in biomedical science, both in terms of research potential and public controversy. (spusa.org)
  • In 2006, the landscape of stem cell research changed when the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first announced. (spusa.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells have the unique ability to self-replicate indefinitely before creating specialized cells, which is one of the advantages of performing research on them. (spusa.org)
  • An important part of this research would be the identification of how and why undifferentiated cells become differentiated. (spusa.org)
  • To evaluate the Italian physicians' knowledge/information level about the therapeutic potential of stem cells, the research choice between embryonic and cordonal stem cells, and the preference between autologous and heterologous storage of cordonal stem cells, we performed a national survey. (hindawi.com)
  • They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem cells research is recently reproposing the paradigmatic case of the reciprocal influence between science and ideological (e.g., political, religious, economic, and social) issues. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, an important question deals with the impact upon national regulation and social behaviours of the scientific community experts' advice regarding stem cells research and its exploitation for health care purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • Translational medicine thus represents a stem of scientific research that aims to move "from bench to bedside" or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. (hindawi.com)
  • The NHMRC Embryo Research Licensing Committee (NHMRC Licensing Committee) developed this discussion paper in response to a request from the Council of the NHMRC for a definition of 'human embryo' from a purely biological standpoint. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • The definition proposed in this paper was subsequently adopted by the Australian Parliament in the Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction and Regulation of Human Embryo Research Amendment Act 2006 to replace the previously used definition. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • First, your story states,'But some people want to ban that work, claiming the research kills human embryos. (marymeetsdolly.com)
  • It is not just 'some people' that claim that this research kills human embryos. (marymeetsdolly.com)
  • Also because research on embryonic stem cells does not necesarily have to destroy the embryo. (marymeetsdolly.com)
  • The research could involve existing stem cell lines. (marymeetsdolly.com)
  • bioethics
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • The President will create a new President's Council on Bioethics, chaired by Dr. Leon Kass, an expert in biomedical ethics and a professor at the University of Chicago, to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behaviorial science and technology. (archives.gov)
  • Mr. Bush will create a new President's Council on Bioethics to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behavioural science and technology. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • It's about stem cells, cloning, bioethics and genetics. (blogspot.com)
  • experiments
  • In a series of experiments between 1960 and 1965, Robert Geoffrey Edwards discovered how to make mammalian egg cells, or oocytes, mature outside of a female's body. (asu.edu)
  • Scientists who want to conduct experiments with human embryos are quick to say what human embryos are not. (lifeethics.org)
  • This chronology also addresses subsequent reports of other cloning experiments, including the first one using human cells. (unt.edu)
  • The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. (asu.edu)
  • The team of scientists used the methods identified during the Dolly experiments to produce transgenic livestock capable of producing milk containing human blood clotting factor IX, which helps to treat a type of hemophilia. (asu.edu)
  • developmental
  • In 1969, more than ten years after the first attempts to treat infertilities with IVF technologies, the British developmental biologist Robert Geoffrey Edwards fertilized human oocytes in a Petri dish for the first time. (asu.edu)
  • This paper outlined the successful purification and identification of nerve growth factor (NGF) as a protein, the developmental effects of depriving an embryo of NGF, and the discovery that NGF is also required for the maintenance of the nervous system. (asu.edu)
  • transplantation
  • So, figuring out how to use human embryonic stem cells directly by transplantation into patients is tantamount to solving the cancer problem. (lifeethics.org)
  • The first type of tissue engineering using stem cells was hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a surgical procedure in which hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are infused into a host to treat a variety of blood diseases, cancers, and immunodeficiencies. (asu.edu)
  • In this paper Briggs and King examined whether nuclei of embryonic cells are differentiated, and by doing so, were the first to conduct a successful nuclear transplantation with amphibian embryos. (asu.edu)
  • 2002
  • By 2002, Lo distinguished the DNA differences between pregnant women and their fetuses, enabling scientists to identify fetal DNA in pregnant women's blood. (asu.edu)
  • By late 2002, when ACT's therapeutic cloning program was experiencing its first successes, its funding ran out and the work was halted. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In 2002, a technique called handmade cloning was introduced, which is cheaper and simpler, without the need for micromanipulation and also works better. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • controversies
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies . (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Only one group has ever succeeded, and their lines were generated using fetal and infant cells. (bioethics.net)
  • Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue' (2004), by Kiarash Khosrotehrani et al. (asu.edu)
  • Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, investigated the fetal cells that remained in the maternal blood stream after pregnancy. (asu.edu)
  • The results were published in Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue. (asu.edu)
  • In 2007, Dennis Lo and his colleagues used digital polymerase chain reaction or PCR to detect trisomy 21 in maternal blood, validating the method as a means to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, or an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. (asu.edu)
  • Human Factor IX Transgenic Sheep Produced by Transfer of Nuclei from Transfected Fetal Fibroblasts' (1997), by Angelika E. Schnieke, et al. (asu.edu)
  • Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells' (1997), by Ian Wilmut et al. (asu.edu)
  • moral
  • Information on presidential actions and legislative activities related to the ethical and moral issues surrounding cloning is provided, as well as relevant Web sites. (unt.edu)
  • Living in a pluralistic society such as ours, supporters argue, means having to tolerate differences in religious and personal convictions over such personally theoretical matters as when during the course of human biological development moral personhood first appears. (jci.org)
  • donor
  • in practice usually the whole donor cell is transferred. (bootstrike.com)
  • The manipulator is used to remove the nucleus from an egg which is then fused with a cell from a donor animal. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The half egg lacking a nucleus is fused with a donor somatic cell and the fused egg half is fused again with a second enucleate half egg before it is activated (with a mild electric shock) to produce an embryo that is then implanted in a surrogate mother . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • genomics
  • Participating in this way in a commercial enterprise ensures that advances in cell biology and genomics are applied ethically. (dartmouth.edu)
  • true clones
  • The experiment could easily have rendered zero true clones. (blogspot.com)
  • The regulatory regimes of USA and EU based their false claim that the cloned animals are true clones on the baseless assumption that the mitochondrial genomes do not count when in fact the mitochondria play crucial roles in in a number of diseases of the nervous system, in cell suicide and in aging. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The speedy technique could be performed in a clean home kitchen and it has begun to dominate the production of animal 'clones' that are not true clones, but heteroplasmic for mitochondrial DNA as explained above . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • ethical issues
  • (jci.org)
  • If we could understand what the egg is doing and apply it in the petri dish to the skin cell, that's the Holy Grail that's what would give us the ability to manipulate the fate of skin cells for medical and therapeutic ends, and get away from some of these more contentious ethical issues. (marymeetsdolly.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, Aristotle could fit his observations of embryos perfectly well within his larger theoretical interpretations of the world. (stanford.edu)
  • diseases
  • Health care professionals have long been excited by the potential that such cells have for treating a wide range of diseases. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Therapeutic cloning has long been envisioned as a means for generating patient-specific stem cells that could be used to treat a range of age-related diseases," said Dr. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer for Advanced Cell Technology. (bioethics.net)
  • However, it is very likely that diseases of adult life, if they show any manifestation in embryos at all, will do so well after this arbitrary stage of maturation. (lifeethics.org)
  • In "Generation," the authors point to dedifferentiation of somatic cells as an avenue for generating pluripotent stem cells useful for treating specific patients and diseases. (asu.edu)
  • In 1908, Bleuler coined the term schizophrenia to describe a group of diseases that cause changes in thought processes and behavior in humans as well as difficulties relating to the world. (asu.edu)
  • Cell death and degeneration cause some of the most serious diseases still facing us-diabetes, Parkinson's, and a host of diseases of aging. (dartmouth.edu)
  • regulation
  • Our hope is that stem cell scientists and clinicians will use the information presented herein as a starting point for more in-depth analysis of ethical and safety issues related to clinical translation of stem cells since controversial regulation and application of stem cell therapy has been falsely celebrated not only in countries with lax medical regulations but also in many developed countries. (medsci.org)
  • germ
  • The hallmark of vertebrate gastrulation is the reorganization of the inner cell mass (ICM) into the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (asu.edu)