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  • capsid
  • In most respects, the details of the capsid are interesting but not exceptional, as they conform to expectations for icosahedral virus protein topology. (ucsb.edu)
  • replication
  • From replication testing, it is believed the 109S component is the panicum mosaic pathogen and the 42S component of the pathogen is the panicum satellite virus because the 109S component replicates independently while 42S cannot replicate without the presence of the 109S component. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • It is the RNA and its distribution within the virion that makes STMV unique, as it provides the best opportunity we have for determining the conformation of the nucleic acid in any spherical virus. (ucsb.edu)
  • Bacteriophages
  • We know now of course that "bacteriophages" are viruses, that they don't literally "eat" bacteria, and that virus is the preferable term. (virology.ws)
  • For a subset of these viruses, including many tailed bacteriophages and the herpes viruses, the concatemers are cut at specific sites to generate unit-length virion chromosomes ( F ujisawa and H earing 1994 ). (genetics.org)
  • viruses possess double-stranded DNA and include such virus families as Herpesviridae (examples like HSV1 ( oral herpes ), HSV2 ( genital herpes ), VZV ( chickenpox ), EBV ( Epstein-Barr virus ), CMV ( Cytomegalovirus )), Poxviridae (smallpox) and many tailed bacteriophages . (wikidoc.org)
  • genes
  • The use of resistant cultivars has been the most effective means of control, however plant virus resistance genes are frequently unavailable and their introgression into some crops is not straightforward. (apsnet.org)
  • Plants
  • 1996) have been engineered into plants to obtain virus resistance. (apsnet.org)
  • Compared to conventional breeding for virus resistance, genetic engineering provides a quicker and more precise technology to obtain plants that are resistant to viruses, although most transgenic virus-resistant plants are still under laboratory development. (apsnet.org)
  • Figure 2.1 Transgenic papaya plants show resistance (right) while non-transgenic plants (left) are susceptible to papaya ringspot virus under field conditions. (apsnet.org)
  • Since 1971, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) operating on behalf of the world community of virologists has taken on the task of developing a single, universal taxonomic scheme for all viruses infecting animals (vertebrate, invertebrates, and protozoa), plants (higher plants and algae), fungi, bacteria, and archaea. (indigo.ca)
  • Bacteria
  • A ) Numbers in parentheses indicate the total number of proteomes that were sampled from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and viruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • By this reasoning the term 'bacteriophage' is equally unfortunate as viruses of bacteria do not 'eat' their hosts. (virology.ws)
  • Microbial pathogens include various species of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In humans, diseases can be caused by the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Frequently the responsible microbes are bacteria, viruses, or protozoa that usually reside in the intestinal tract of humans or other creatures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sputnik
  • These results suggest a mechanism of Sputnik DNA ejection that probably also occurs in other big icosahedral double jelly-roll viruses such as Adenovirus. (pnas.org)
  • Sputnik virus was discovered to be associated with Mimivirus when isolated from amoeba ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • EM images suggest that Sputnik virus matures in viral factories together with Mimivirus itself ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The double "jelly-roll" hexon structure of the Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) MCP (Vp54) fitted well into the 10.7-Å resolution cryo-EM density map of Sputnik ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Sputnik type and Hep Delta are both satellite viruses, right? (virology.ws)
  • For example, sputnik virus can only replicate in cells infected with mimivirus, and does so within viral factories. (virology.ws)
  • Sputnik is dependent upon mimivirus not for DNA polymerase - it encodes its own - but probably for the transcriptional machinery of the helper virus. (virology.ws)
  • Those who favor the name virophage argue that dependence upon the cellular transcriptional machinery is a property of many autonomous viruses - the only difference is that Sputnik depends upon the machinery provided by another virus. (virology.ws)
  • bacterial
  • A ) Violin plots comparing the spread ( f value) of FSFs shared and not shared with viruses in archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryal proteomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Taxonomy
  • Is anyone planning on starting the taxonomy of viruses? (wikimedia.org)
  • Considering viruses as nanomachines in the context of a taxonomy of Life does no good. (wikimedia.org)
  • Accompanying this broad method of classification are specific naming conventions and further classification guidelines set out by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses . (wikidoc.org)
  • Diseases
  • Plant virus diseases pose severe constraints to the production of a wide range of economically important crops worldwide (Agrios 1997). (apsnet.org)
  • Virus-free stocks are obtained by virus elimination through heat therapy and/or meristem tissue culture, but this approach is ineffective for viral diseases transmitted by vectors. (apsnet.org)
  • Genetic engineering brings new hope for the effective control of plant virus diseases. (apsnet.org)
  • These small pathogenic viruses which are transmitted by insects are responsible for various diseases in cotton crop. (biocoreopen.org)
  • Evolution
  • Two major phases in the evolution of viruses are indicated in different background colors. (sciencemag.org)
  • I am particularly interested in using structural techniques to understand virus cell-entry, assembly, and evolution. (utah.edu)
  • Viruses, Evolution and Cancer: Basic Considerations focuses on comparative biology and evolutionary aspects of DNA and RNA oncogenic viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Other chapters explore the comparative viral oncology, comparative immunology of oncogenic viruses, and evolution of viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • encapsidation
  • Although PEMV RNA-1 was capable of supporting the encapsidation and aphid transmission of the GRV satellite, no evidence was obtained that the essential role of the GRV satellite in the aphid transmission of GRV could be supplied by the PEMV satellite. (www.gov.uk)
  • Classification
  • The practical need to partition the world of viruses into distinguishable, universally agreed upon entities is the ultimate justification for developing a virus classification system. (indigo.ca)
  • well how about en:virus classification 's viewpoint? (wikimedia.org)
  • I thik that the Baltimore classification is the most resonable one, since virus are more or less just a nucleic acid. (wikimedia.org)
  • I cleaned up the language in a few places and I also tried to remove some of the language where the classification of virus as life was implicit. (wikimedia.org)
  • Like the relatively consistent classification systems seen for cellular organisms , virus classification is the subject of ongoing debate and proposals. (wikidoc.org)
  • A combination of two main schemes is currently in widespread use for the classification of viruses. (wikidoc.org)
  • David Baltimore , a Nobel Prize -winning biologist, devised the Baltimore classification system, which places viruses into one of seven groups. (wikidoc.org)
  • hosts
  • Fig. 3 Virus-host preferences and FSF distribution in viruses infecting different hosts. (sciencemag.org)
  • To quantify the energetic cost of viruses to their hosts, we enumerated the costs associated with two very distinct but representative DNA and RNA viruses, namely, T4 and influenza. (pnas.org)
  • Ebola
  • A new ESA project employs satellites to predict and help combat epidemic outbreaks, as well as join the hunt for the origin of the deadly Ebola virus. (esa.int)
  • The satellite data will be updated monthly to gain more clues, Moussavou added: "In Gabon and Congo, we have observed an annual periodicity of Ebola outbreaks. (esa.int)
  • Vectors
  • While vectors can be controlled by insecticides, often the virus has already been transmitted to the plant before the insect vector is killed. (apsnet.org)
  • virion
  • It is the RNA and its distribution within the virion that makes STMV unique, as it provides the best opportunity we have for determining the conformation of the nucleic acid in any spherical virus. (ucsb.edu)
  • parasitic
  • Although many experimental studies make it clear that viruses are parasitic entities that hijack the molecular resources of the host, a detailed estimate for the energetic cost of viral synthesis is largely lacking. (pnas.org)
  • genetic
  • Restriction analysis of genetic variability of Polish isolates of Tomato black ring virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The concept of pathogen derived resistance (Sanford and Johnston, 1985) has stimulated research on obtaining virus resistance through genetic engineering. (apsnet.org)
  • Also, do religions and other computer viruses belong in this section, or should non-chemical/informational life be separated out the way that non-genetic life has been proposed to be separated out? (wikimedia.org)