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  • strains
  • Recent characterization of the lipid A 1-phosphatase, LpxE, from Francisella tularensis allowed us to construct recombinant, plasmid-free strains of Salmonella that produce predominantly 1-dephosphorylated lipid A, similar to the adjuvant approved for human use. (jimmunol.org)
  • Candidate Salmonella vaccine strains synthesizing pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) were also confirmed to possess nearly complete lipid A 1-dephosphorylation. (jimmunol.org)
  • After inoculation by the LpxE/PspA strains, mice produced robust levels of anti-PspA Abs and showed significantly improved survival against challenge with wild-type Streptococcus pneumoniae WU2 compared with vector-only-immunized mice, validating Salmonella synthesizing 1-dephosphorylated lipid A as an Ag-delivery system. (jimmunol.org)
  • The study also shows an increase in certain strains of typhoid fever that are resistant to the most commonly used medications for treatment. (medindia.net)
  • In addition, the authors report that "identification of nalidixic acid-resistant S Typhi (NARST) and reports of infection with S Typhi strains resistant to ciprofloxacin from typhoid-endemic areas have generated concern that strains resistant to fluroquinolones may become more prevalent. (medindia.net)
  • If a protein based vaccine could be produced that can protect against all strains of the pneumococcus, this would be of tremendous value and our discovery that NLRP3 is needed for protection will point us in the right direction in terms of how to develop such vaccines. (medindia.net)
  • In this Phase I clinical study, three recombinant, avirulent Salmonella Typhi (RASV) strains each expressing the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein, PspA, will be compared as live bi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Drug resistant strains of Salmonella are now regularly observed in the clinic. (grc.org)
  • malaria
  • The illness has nonspecific symptoms, making it difficult to distinguish clinically from other febrile illnesses ( 2 ) that might be endemic or cause epidemics in the same geographic areas, such as paratyphoid fever, dengue, and malaria. (cdc.gov)
  • immunology
  • Lavelle, who is Lecturer in Immunology in the School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, said: "This is a very exciting finding and supports the development of inflammasome activating vaccines to prevent pneumococcal diseases including pneumonia and septicaemia. (medindia.net)
  • Humans
  • However, one problematic issue in the field has been that although candidate RASVs are adequately attenuated in animal models, when administered to humans, these vaccines can produce unwanted side effects, including fever and intestinal distress ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Historically, salmonellae have been clinically categorized as invasive (typhoidal) or noninvasive (nontyphoidal salmonellae) based on host preference and disease manifestations in humans. (howlingpixel.com)
  • Salmonella typhimurium is an important foodborne pathogenic bacteriaum that causes gastrointestinal disease in humans and many animals. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Still others, such as Salmonella oranienburg, were first isolated from the feces of healthy humans. (army.mil)
  • infection caused
  • The discovery will lead to a dramatic shift in our understanding of how the body's immune system responds to infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and pave the way for more effective vaccines. (medindia.net)
  • diseases includi
  • Water tanks and wells in the Vizianagaram district have been contaminated by recent heavy rains, leading to a rise in seasonal diseases including typhoid. (coalitionagainsttyphoid.org)
  • It is people holidaying in exotic places without being vaccinated who are causing a rise in dangerous diseases including typhoid, warn doctors. (medindia.net)
  • antibiotic resistance
  • We would suggest that such high microbial gut concentration guarantees increased spontaneous mutation leading to polyclonality and antibiotic resistance in typhoid and paratyphoid carriers, in a similar manner as it occurs in the critically ill with gut overgrowth of potentially pathogenic organisms4,5. (bmj.com)
  • typhoidal
  • A number of facts can substantiate the crucial role of the faecal carriage of typhoidal Salmonellae in the emergence of DSC. (bmj.com)
  • First, typhoidal Salmonellae are well adapted human parasites with the ability to invade, persist .and in some individuals establish a chronic carrier state with persistent excretion of the organism for months or years2. (bmj.com)
  • The two distinct types of Salmonella infection are non-typhoidal (NTS) and typhoidal. (cps.ca)
  • Multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with invasive disease in western Kenya. (coalitionagainsttyphoid.org)
  • With regard to human disease, S. enterica has traditionally been divided into a small number of human-restricted invasive typhoidal Salmonella and thousands of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • sanitation
  • In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). (cdc.gov)
  • Typhoid fever is a particularly difficult problem in parts of the world with poor sanitation practices. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The typhoid outbreak in Pakistan continues as drug resistance and poor water, sanitation and hygiene facilities complicate the response. (coalitionagainsttyphoid.org)
  • Developing countries with poor sanitation and sewage treatment are especially vulnerable to typhoid outbreaks. (westerlynaturalmarket.com)
  • Immune Responses
  • Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASVs) can deliver Ags from a variety of pathogens, generating a range of immune responses, including serum Abs, mucosal IgA, and a panoply of cell-mediated immune responses, at local and distal sites ( 1 - 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • polysaccharide
  • Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. (duke.edu)
  • As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C1, and C2, O-antigen polysaccharide is believed to be a good target for vaccine development. (frontiersin.org)
  • The vaccine candidates induced high amounts of heterologous O-polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • endemic areas
  • We have seen vaccine-preventable diseases like typhoid on the increase because people travel abroad to endemic areas without being vaccinated and return sick to the UK. (medindia.net)