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  • strains
  • We have examined their genotypic relationship to each other, to sensitive strains from Nairobi, and to MDR S. Typhi from Southeast Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • and from 17 representative MDR S. Typhi strains collected from 1990 to 1995 (6) from Pakistan (7) , Hong Kong (4) , Bangladesh (3) , Kuwait (1) , and India (1) . (cdc.gov)
  • isolates
  • MDR S. Typhi has not caused problems in Africa, except in South Africa (4) , nor in South and Central America (5) , and most isolates have remained fully susceptible. (cdc.gov)
  • During 1997-1999, a number of isolates of MDR S. Typhi were identified from patients with typhoid in Nairobi, Kenya. (cdc.gov)
  • Macrorestricted (using XbaI) chromosomal DNA from the S. Typhi isolates was separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with a CHEF DRII system (Bio-Rad Labs, Richmond, VA). The gels were stained with ethidium bromide and photographed on an ultraviolet transilluminator. (cdc.gov)
  • All 16 S. Typhi isolates from 1988-1993 were fully sensitive to all the drugs tested (MIC 0.012-0.016 mg/L for ciprofloxacin to 1-3 mg/L for chloramphenicol). (cdc.gov)
  • infection
  • In this study, we characterize the human CD8(+) MAIT cell immune response to S. Typhi infection in subjects participating in a challenge clinical trial who received a low- or high dose of wild-type S. Typhi. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Regardless of the dose, in volunteers resistant to infection (NoTD), the levels of CD8(+) MAIT cells after S. Typhi challenge fluctuated around their baseline values (day 0). (ox.ac.uk)
  • In sum, we describe, for the first time, that exposure to an enteric bacterium, in this case S. Typhi, results in changes in MAIT cell activation, proliferation, and homing characteristics, suggesting that MAIT cells are an important component of the human host response to bacterial infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • bacterial
  • Recently, we provided the first direct evidence that CD8(+) MAIT cells are activated and have the potential to kill cells exposed to S. Typhi, and that these responses are dependent on bacterial load. (ox.ac.uk)
  • enteric
  • To investigate metabolite signals associated with enteric fever we performed two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) on plasma from patients with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections and asymptomatic controls, identifying 695 individual metabolite peaks. (irses-tuberculosis.info)
  • chromosomal
  • METHODOLOGY: This study describes genetic fingerprints using restriction fragment length polymorphism with SpeI of chromosomal DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Typhi isolated from different geographic areas spreading from west to east across Indonesia. (jidc.org)
  • RESULTS: A total of 33 SpeI digested S. Typhi chromosomal DNA gave 22 schizotypes, 20 pulsotypes, and 12 subtypes indicating genomic diversity and the presence of more than one clone of S. Typhi. (jidc.org)
  • genes
  • The ciprofloxacin resistant and cefetoxime sensitive standard MTCC S. typhi 734 and S. typhi BST 63 strain showed absence of both blaCTX-M2 and blaCTXM-9 genes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • aroC aroD
  • Consistent with previous findings in volunteers vaccinated with aroC aroD deletion mutants of S. typhi , PBMC from volunteers immunized with the licensed live Ty21a S. typhi vaccine secreted gamma interferon following exposure to STF. (asm.org)
  • strain
  • There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR) strain of S. typhi in the study area. (hindawi.com)
  • In the absence of antimicrobial pressure, 6 out of 11 mutants carried a selective advantage over the antimicrobial-sensitive parent strain, indicating that FQ resistance in S. Typhi is not typically associated with fitness costs. (elifesciences.org)
  • antimicrobial
  • In addition, the antimicrobial effect of several commercial germicides was tested on alfalfa sprouts for reduction of native coliforms and inoculated Vibrio cholerae Ol or Salmonella typhi. (edu.mx)
  • induce
  • Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella , which induce Ab-mediated protection, was reduced postinfection with Vi-expressing Salmonella , although protection was not totally abrogated. (jimmunol.org)
  • colonization
  • Data in C represent two pooled independent experiments (n=19 for control and n=25 for humanized mice) in which 5 control mice and 10 humanized mice showed S. typhi colonization in the gall bladder. (nih.gov)
  • human
  • The cytokine production patterns of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) were examined in culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated with STF. (asm.org)
  • acute
  • Here, we report a case of Salmonella typhi septicemia associated with acute renal failure secondary to proliferative glomeronephritis.requiring renal replacement therapy. (bmj.com)
  • cells
  • Furthermore, Ab derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • molecular
  • Double-mutants exhibited higher than expected fitness as a result of synergistic epistasis, signifying that epistasis may be a critical factor in the evolution and molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi. (elifesciences.org)