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  • strains
  • On September 4, 2008, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) and the Pennsylvania Department of Health (PADOH) notified CDC of an outbreak of possible turtle-associated human Salmonella Typhimurium infections detected by identifying strains with similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns in PulseNet. (cdc.gov)
  • multistate
  • On September 4, 2008, after a turtle aquarium water sample from a Philadelphia patient's home was positive for the outbreak strain, CDC and state and local health partners initiated a multistate investigation to determine the source of infections. (cdc.gov)
  • small turtles
  • Among 70 patients with primary infection, 37% reported turtle exposure, of which 81% was to small turtles most commonly purchased from street vendors. (cdc.gov)
  • Increasing enforcement of existing local, state, and federal regulations against the sale of small turtles, increasing penalties for illegal sales, and enacting more state and local laws regulating the sale of small turtles (e.g., requiring Salmonella awareness education at the point-of-sale), could augment federal prevention efforts. (cdc.gov)
  • PulseNet
  • Each of these PFGE patterns had been observed previously and comprised 1.1%--1.2% of the PulseNet Salmonella database. (cdc.gov)
  • outbreak strain
  • A case was defined as a laboratory-confirmed infection of S . Typhimurium with the outbreak strain (PFGE Xba I pattern JPXX01.0416 or JPXX01.0006) in a person with an illness onset date § on or after March 13, 2008 (earliest reported illness onset date). (cdc.gov)
  • species
  • Eighty-three (61%) of 135 patients were interviewed using a more extensive questionnaire that asked about clinical symptoms, day-care attendance, reptile exposure (turtle size, species, acquisition source, and type and extent of turtle contact), and awareness of the association between reptile contact and Salmonella infection. (cdc.gov)
  • hens
  • Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. (frontiersin.org)