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  • PFGE
  • Each of these PFGE patterns had been observed previously and comprised 1.1%--1.2% of the PulseNet Salmonella database. (cdc.gov)
  • A case was defined as a laboratory-confirmed infection of S . Typhimurium with the outbreak strain (PFGE Xba I pattern JPXX01.0416 or JPXX01.0006) in a person with an illness onset date ยง on or after March 13, 2008 (earliest reported illness onset date). (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms
  • Eighty-three (61%) of 135 patients were interviewed using a more extensive questionnaire that asked about clinical symptoms, day-care attendance, reptile exposure (turtle size, species, acquisition source, and type and extent of turtle contact), and awareness of the association between reptile contact and Salmonella infection. (cdc.gov)
  • turtle exposure
  • Among 70 patients with primary infection, 37% reported turtle exposure, of which 81% was to small turtles most commonly purchased from street vendors. (cdc.gov)
  • illness
  • A case of secondary infection (secondary case) was defined as illness in a person occurring within 2 weeks after diarrheal illness in a household or day care contact, suggesting person-to-person transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • turtles
  • Increasing enforcement of existing local, state, and federal regulations against the sale of small turtles, increasing penalties for illegal sales, and enacting more state and local laws regulating the sale of small turtles (e.g., requiring Salmonella awareness education at the point-of-sale), could augment federal prevention efforts. (cdc.gov)
  • investigation
  • On September 4, 2008, after a turtle aquarium water sample from a Philadelphia patient's home was positive for the outbreak strain, CDC and state and local health partners initiated a multistate investigation to determine the source of infections. (cdc.gov)
  • cases
  • Nine of those 20 children attended three Pennsylvania day-care centers, and they acquired secondary Salmonella infections through contact with laboratory-confirmed index cases, one in each day-care center. (cdc.gov)