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  • neoplasms
  • Imaging of the head and neck has developed significantly with the advent of CT and MR. These modalities greatly compliment the physical and endoscopic examinations by revealing possible blind areas, such as subtle extension of neoplasms from the lower face and/or salivary glands to deep spaces, nonpalpable adenopathy, bone marrow invasion, and distant metastasis. (ucsd.edu)
  • Indications include: In the evaluation of the functional integrity of the salivary glands In case of obstructions To evaluate the ductal pattern In case of facial swellings, to rule out salivary gland pathology In case of intra-glandular neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relatively rare in occurrence, this condition is benign, but presents as hard, indurated and enlarged masses that are clinically indistinguishable from salivary gland neoplasms or tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benign parotid gland neoplasms typically present after the age of 40 and have an equal presentation in both genders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialolith
  • After a sialolith is removed from an affected gland, a sialastic stent is inserted into the duct for two to four weeks for the duration of the healing process of the oral region and until normal function of the gland is restored. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal calculi
  • The purpose of this investigation: to study of the frequency and combinations of urolithiasis and sialic lithiasis and compare of the mineral composition of sialic and renal calculi. (ecuro.ru)
  • X-ray phase analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used for determination of mineral composition and structure of sialic and renal calculi. (ecuro.ru)
  • cranial nerves
  • Posteromedial relations: The gland is situated anterolaterally to mastoid process of temporal bone with its attached sternocleidomastoid and digastric muscles, styloid process of temporal bone with its three attached muscles (stylohyoid, stylopharyngeus, and styloglossus) and carotid sheath with its contained neurovasculature (internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th cranial nerves). (wikipedia.org)
  • lithiasis
  • In this study the authors, making use of a non-surgical therapeutic method like extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, aim to show the advantages of this method compared with surgery, in the therapy of lithiasis of the salivary glands. (minervamedica.it)
  • Diseases
  • Diseases of the Salivary Glands Including Dry Mouth and Sjögren's Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rauch S GR: Diseases of the salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are really only two main distinctions to be made in parotidectomies: The specific nerve(s) to be dissected or not dissected The amount of gland excised It is important to note that the specific surgery chosen is based on preservation of the facial nerve in order to avoid significant morbidities (diseases). (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • The development of infection in the gland also influences the signs and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mumps is a viral infection, caused by infection in the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The care of this disease was forbidden to the physicians that had taken the Hippocratic Oath[citation needed] because There was a high probability of intraoperative and postoperative surgical complication like infection or bleeding The physicians would not perform surgery as in ancient cultures they were two different professions Bezoar Calculus (dental) Lithotomy Grases F. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cases where there is acute infection, patients with thyroid function tests When calculi are located in anterior part of the salivary gland duct Contrast agents are classified into two groups: fat-soluble contrast agents and water-soluble contrast agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • superficial or lateral
  • Below indicates the various and main techniques typically associated with a parotidectomy: superficial (near surface) or lateral (side) parotidectomy - excising all the parts of the gland superficial or lateral to the facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • From lateral to medial, these are: Facial nerve Retromandibular vein External carotid artery Superficial temporal artery Branches of the great auricular nerve Maxillary artery Superficial or lateral relations: The gland is situated deep to the skin, superficial fascia, superficial lamina of investing layer of deep cervical fascia and great auricular nerve (anterior ramus of C2 and C3). (wikipedia.org)
  • obstruction
  • Signs and symptoms are variable and depend largely upon whether the obstruction of the duct is complete or partial, and how much resultant pressure is created within the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swelling of the gland, also usually intermittent, often suddenly appearing or increasing before mealtimes, and then slowly going down (partial obstruction). (wikipedia.org)
  • The second leading cause of salivary obstruction is from strictures and adhesions, which can happen from prior salivary gland infections, including childhood infections like mumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretions
  • Conversely a person who reports experiencing xerostomia may not show signs of reduced salivary secretions (subjective xerostomia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Their secretions, like the secretions of other salivary glands, are regulated directly by the parasympathetic nervous system and indirectly by the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, direct stimulation of sympathetic nerves will cause an increase in salivary enzymatic secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • sympathetic
  • Postganglionic sympathetic fibers from superior cervical sympathetic ganglion reach the gland as periarterial nerve plexuses around the middle meningeal artery and their function is mainly vasoconstriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouth
  • There are 800 to 1,000 minor salivary glands located throughout the oral cavity within the submucosa of the oral mucosa in the tissue of the buccal, labial, and lingual mucosa, the soft palate, the lateral parts of the hard palate, and the floor of the mouth or between muscle fibers of the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Problems with dentures are sometimes associated with minor salivary glands if there is dry mouth present (see further discussion). (wikipedia.org)
  • A baseline radiograph (scout film) of the required salivary gland would be taken, the duct is dilated using graded lacrimal probes, a cannula then is inserted in this salivary gland duct's opening in the mouth, then a Radio-opaque fluid (Contrast medium) is injected in the duct through a small tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endoscope is introduced into the gland through its natural orifice in the mouth or by a making a small incision in the duct opening. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xerostomia is the subjective sensation of dry mouth, which is often (but not always) associated with hypofunction of the salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the two parotid glands are present on either side of the mouth and in front of both ears. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • Immune, especially autoimmune, cause - which has gained steam, given the observation that the tissue of the glands is overrun with lymphoid immune cells and fibrous connective tissue, as well as corroboration from markedly similar lesions (with histologic and immunohistochemical findings) seen elsewhere in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • The salivary glands can be affected in various diseases. (academic.ru)
  • Rauch S GR: Diseases of the salivary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are really only two main distinctions to be made in parotidectomies: The specific nerve(s) to be dissected or not dissected The amount of gland excised It is important to note that the specific surgery chosen is based on preservation of the facial nerve in order to avoid significant morbidities (diseases). (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Sialolithiasis may also develop because of the presence of existing chronic infection of the glands, dehydration (e.g. use of phenothiazines), Sjögren's syndrome and/or increased local levels of calcium, but in many instances the cause is idiopathic (unknown). (wikipedia.org)
  • posterior
  • The gland can be bilaterally palpated (felt) inferior and posterior to the body of the mandible, moving inward from the inferior border of the mandible near its angle with the head tilted forwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glands are located posterior to the mandibular ramus and anterior to the mastoid process of the temporal bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gland has three borders - anterior, medial, and posterior. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external carotid artery and its terminal branches within the gland, namely, the superficial temporal and the posterior auricular arteries, supply the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • superficial
  • Superficial structures such as muscles, tendons, testes, breast, thyroid and parathyroid glands, and the neonatal brain are imaged at a higher frequency (7-18 MHz), which provides better axial and lateral resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gland can usually be felt as it is in the superficial cervical region and feels like a rounded ball. (wikipedia.org)
  • From lateral to medial, these are: Facial nerve Retromandibular vein External carotid artery Superficial temporal artery Branches of the great auricular nerve Maxillary artery Superficial or lateral relations: The gland is situated deep to the skin, superficial fascia, superficial lamina of investing layer of deep cervical fascia and great auricular nerve (anterior ramus of C2 and C3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The fascia at the imaginary line between the angle of mandible and mastoid process splits into the superficial lamina and a deep lamina to enclose the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below indicates the various and main techniques typically associated with a parotidectomy: superficial (near surface) or lateral (side) parotidectomy - excising all the parts of the gland superficial or lateral to the facial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • partial superficial parotidectomy - superficial parotidectomy where the surgeon excises only the portion of the gland surrounding the neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • connective tissue
  • Eventual periductal and interlobular (inside the gland) sclerosis (replacement of regular tissue with hard connective tissue). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune, especially autoimmune, cause - which has gained steam, given the observation that the tissue of the glands is overrun with lymphoid immune cells and fibrous connective tissue, as well as corroboration from markedly similar lesions (with histologic and immunohistochemical findings) seen elsewhere in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gland has a capsule of its own of dense connective tissue, but is also provided with a false capsule by investing layer of deep cervical fascia. (wikipedia.org)