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  • phenol
  • Salicylic acid could be modified to produce phenylsalicylate, which was better tasting and less irritating, but released the toxic substance phenol when metabolized. (niir.org)
  • Manufacturing process of salicylic acid include three reaction steps involved in producing salicylic acid from the starting material namely phenol. (niir.org)
  • But they won't give you the dramatic results offered by peels that use stronger chemicals, such as trichloroacetic acid, commonly known as TCA, or phenol. (livestrong.com)
  • The Great Phenol Plot was a conspiracy by the German Government during the early years of World War I to divert American-produced phenol away from the manufacture of high explosives that supported the British war effort, to the production of aspirin by the German-owned Bayer company, who could no longer import phenol from Britain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The public pressure soon forced Schweitzer and Edison to end the phenol deal, with the embarrassed Edison subsequently sending his excess phenol to the U.S. military, but by that time the deal had netted the plotters over two million dollars and there was already enough phenol to keep Bayer's aspirin plant running. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the active ingredients of Carmex lip balm are camphor (1.7%), menthol (0.7%), salicylic acid, and phenol (0.4%)[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kolbe-Schmitt reaction or Kolbe process (named after Hermann Kolbe and Rudolf Schmitt) is a carboxylation chemical reaction that proceeds by heating sodium phenoxide (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure (100 atm, 125 °C), then treating the product with sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company later expanded into the production of coal tar, and carbolic acid (phenol). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • A low level of aspirin in the body inhibits platelet aggregation which is often what makes a small clot or a atherosclerotic area in the artery larger causing a serious heart attack. (hubpages.com)
  • acetic anhydride
  • For example, in reacting ethanol with acetic anhydride, ethyl acetate forms and acetic acid is kicked out as a leaving group, which is considerably less reactive than an acid anhydride and will be left as a byproduct (in a wasteful 1:1 ratio with the ester product) if product is collected immediately. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in many carefully designed syntheses, reagents can be designed such that acid anhydrides are generated in situ and carboxylic acid byproducts are reactivated, and Fischer esterification routes are not necessarily mutually exclusive with acetic anhydride routes. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohols
  • The Jones oxidation is an organic reaction for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to carboxylic acids and ketones, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • For oxidations to the aldehydes and ketones, two equivalents of chromic acid oxidize three equivalents of the alcohol: 2 HCrO4− + 3 RR'C(OH)H + 8 H+ + 4 H2O → 2 [Cr(H2O)+ + 3 RR'CO For oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, one equivalent of Jones reagent is required for each substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like many other oxidations of alcohols by metal oxides, the reaction proceeds via the formation of a mixed ester: These esters have the formula CrO3(OCH2R)− CrO3(OH)− + RCH2OH → CrO3(OCH2R)− + H2O Like conventional esters, the formation of this chromate ester is accelerated by the acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical reaction times vary from 1-10 hours at temperatures of 60-110 °C. Direct acylations of alcohols with carboxylic acids is preferred over acylations with anhydrides (poor atom economy) or acid chlorides (moisture sensitive). (wikipedia.org)
  • potassium
  • By using potassium hydroxide, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is accessible, an important precursor for the versatile paraben class of biocides used e.g. in personal care products. (wikipedia.org)
  • arachidonic
  • The effects of aspirin, salicylic acid and gentisic acid on the paw swellings in the arachidonic acid-potentiated and in the conventional carrageenan-induced oedema tests as well as on the content of prostaglandin-like activity and leucocyte migration in the exudate of inert implanted sponges in the rat have been studied. (springer.com)
  • reaction
  • The reaction stoichiometry implicates the Cr(IV) species "CrO2OH−", which comproportionates with the chromic acid to give a Cr(V) oxide, which also functions as an oxidant for the alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction mechanism for this reaction has several steps: Proton transfer from acid catalyst to carbonyl oxygen increases electrophilicity of carbonyl carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • softer acids can be used with a tradeoff of longer reaction times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bayer
  • this was especially problematic because Bayer was instituting a new branding strategy in anticipation of the expiry of the aspirin patent in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Counterfeiters and Canadian importers and smugglers were stepping up to meet demand for aspirin, and the war had disrupted the links between the American Bayer plant (in Rensselaer, New York) and the central Bayer headquarters in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bayer's reputation took a large hit, however, just as the company was preparing to launch an advertising campaign to secure the connection between aspirin and the Bayer brand. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was marketed by Bayer under the name Aspirin which was registered as a trade name on 23 January 1899. (wikipedia.org)
  • facial
  • Products containing salicylic acid include facial cleansers and antidandruff shampoos. (niir.org)
  • Salicylic peels, being the lightest type of facial peel, have subtle results. (livestrong.com)
  • The study looked at 268 participants ages 10 to 60 who received salicylic peels for various facial conditions such as melasma, acne, post-inflammatory scarring and warts. (livestrong.com)
  • Researchers concluded that salicylic peels are a 'well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses. (livestrong.com)
  • organic acid
  • The diversity is demonstrated by the wide range of acylglycines excreted in the urines of patients with defects of organic acid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mild
  • Salicylic acid has been added in trace amounts as a food preservative and in mild antiseptics, such as mouthwashes and toothpastes. (niir.org)
  • But salicylic peels are very mild and won't give your complexion a complete makeover, especially if deeper wrinkles, extensive sun damage and acne scarring are concerns. (livestrong.com)
  • widely
  • Aspirin is the most widely used over-the-counter drug in the world. (niir.org)
  • Although there are some contraindications for aspirin use, it is widely accepted for many different uses. (hubpages.com)
  • found
  • Although a person may take a low dose aspirin regimen, emergency personnel will still give the patient a full dose of aspirin when heart attack is suspected due to the need for a higher level of inhibition of platelet aggregation after the initial clot is found by the body. (hubpages.com)
  • various
  • Although the research was good and the news is great, you still should consult your physician before begining an aspirin regemin for various different reasons. (hubpages.com)
  • pathway
  • If conditions are acidic enough, the acetic acid can be further reacted via the Fischer esterification pathway, but at a much slower pace. (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • Scientists in the United Kingdom are reporting new evidence that humans can make their own salicylic acid (SA) - the material formed when aspirin breaks down in the body. (phys.org)
  • It was used to produce, among other things, Thomas Edison's "Diamond Disc" phonograph records (which were not made from shellac like other disc records of the time), the salicylic acid used to make aspirin, and the high explosive trinitrophenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Another reason not to rush to the store and buy a large bottle of low dose aspirin is that more time is needed. (hubpages.com)
  • Journal
  • A study on salicylic acid peels by Paskistani dermatologists Bari Arfan Ul, Iqbal Zafar and Rahman Simeen Ber was published in the 'Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. (livestrong.com)
  • list
  • Should you decide to ask your primary care physician about beginning a low dose aspirin regimen, be sure to go over the list of medications you are already on and confirm that the aspirin will not bring complications with your current medical conditions. (hubpages.com)
  • Salicylates
  • Polyanhydrides which degrade into biologically active salicylates and alpha-hydroxy acids and methods of using these polyanhydrides to deliver the salicylates and alpha-hydroxy acids to a host are provided. (google.com)
  • Salicylates are used routinely as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-oxidant agents, while alpha-hydroxy acids are incorporated into many skin moisturizers, cleansers, lotions, creams shampoos, tanning products and lipsticks to promote smoother, clearer skin with fewer wrinkles. (google.com)
  • Some people may be allergic or sensitive to salicylates and suffer reactions similar to those produced by aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salicylates are derivatives of salicylic acid that occur naturally in plants and serve as a natural immune hormone and preservative, protecting the plants against diseases, insects, fungi, and harmful bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • During provocative challenge, the person is given incrementally higher doses of salicylates, usually aspirin, under medical supervision, until either symptoms appear or the likelihood of symptoms appearing is ruled out. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 5-10% of asthmatics have aspirin hypersensitivity, but dietary salicylates have been shown not to contribute to this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs
  • K.D. Rainsford, A Synergistic Interaction between Aspirin, or other Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, and Stress Which Produces Severe Gastric Damage in Rats and Pigs , Agents and Actions 5 , 553-558 (1975). (springer.com)
  • K.D. Rainsford , Gastrointestinal Damage from Aspirin and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Thoughts for Safer Therapy from Biochemical Studies , Drugs Exptl. (springer.com)
  • K.D. Rainsford , Gastrointestinal and other Side-Effects from the Use of Aspirin and Related Drugs: Biochemical Studies on the Mechanisms of Gastrotoxicity , in Proceedings of the Symposium on Aspirin and Related Drugs: Their Actions and Uses . (springer.com)
  • A hypothesis initially proposed by Wald and Law had recommended a six-drug combination to be taken by patients over age 55 at risk of cardiovascular disease events, which would include three half-dose antihypertensives drugs, aspirin, a statin, and folic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salicylate
  • Hoffmann first claimed to be the "inventor" of aspirin (as opposed to just the synthesizer) in a footnote to a German encyclopedia published in 1934, saying that his father had complained about the bitter taste of sodium salicylate, the only drug then available to treat rheumatism. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important salicylate drug is aspirin, which has a long history. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1975
  • K.D. Rainsford , The Biochemical Pathology of Aspirin-Induced Gastric Damage , Agents and Actions 5 , 326-344 (1975). (springer.com)
  • During 1967-1975 he was a member of the scientific board of the Encyclopedia Hebraica and served as editor and writer of articles on chemistry, biochemistry, geology, and medicine, in seven volumes of the Encyclopedia Hebraica, (for example: Nobel Prizes, liquor, sex and STDs, salicylic acid (aspirin), and more). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspirin intolerance was widely known by 1975, when the understanding began to emerge that it is a pharmacological reaction, not an allergy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moiety
  • In the laboratory, it is used as a sample matrix in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, and has been shown to conveniently detect peptides incorporating the boronic acid moiety by MALDI. (wikipedia.org)
  • anhydrides
  • Acid anhydrides are more reactive than esters because the leaving group is a carboxylate anion-a better leaving group than an alkoxide anion because their negative charge is more delocalised. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • Human glycine N-acyltransferase isoform a is a 296 amino acid protein translated from mRNA transcript splice variant 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetic Anhydride
  • For example, in reacting ethanol with acetic anhydride, ethyl acetate forms and acetic acid is kicked out as a leaving group, which is considerably less reactive than an acid anhydride and will be left as a byproduct (in a wasteful 1:1 ratio with the ester product) if product is collected immediately. (wikipedia.org)
  • clopidogrel
  • The purpose of the study is to assess the efficacy (prevention of vascular events) and safety (especially bleedings) of Ticagrelor (AZD6140) compared with Clopidogrel, both given on top of low dose aspirin, in Asian/Japanese patients with acute coronary syndrome and a planned percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • symptoms
  • In children and teenagers, aspirin is no longer recommended to control flu-like symptoms or the symptoms of chickenpox or other viral illnesses, because of the risk of Reye's syndrome. (preparednessadvice.com)
  • clinical
  • After further research showed no improvement in clinical outcomes for patients taking folic acid, it was omitted from Cadila Pharmaceuticals' formulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewis
  • Commonly used catalysts for a Fischer esterification include sulfuric acid, tosylic acid, and Lewis acids such as scandium(III) triflate. (wikipedia.org)
  • aromatic
  • However, these biocompatible and biodegradable aromatic polyanhydrides have radical or aliphatic bonds resulting in compounds with slow degradation times as well as relatively insoluble degradation products unless incorporated into a copolymer containing a more hydrophilic monomer, such as sebacic acid. (google.com)
  • By oxidizing the alcohol function the aromatic part finally is metabolized to salicylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • If conditions are acidic enough, the acetic acid can be further reacted via the Fischer esterification pathway, but at a much slower pace. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbonyl
  • The reaction mechanism for this reaction has several steps: Proton transfer from acid catalyst to carbonyl oxygen increases electrophilicity of carbonyl carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • medications
  • A prominent 2009 study found that this pill's combination of three blood pressure medications, a cholesterol reducer, and aspirin had cut the risk of heart attack and stroke in half, with no more adverse effects than taking the components separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another received all three blood pressure medications, while the last received all three combined with aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Five additional compounds noted are 4-methyl-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (4-methylcatechol), 4-methoxyacetophenone, 5-methoxysalicylic acid, salicylaldehyde, and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • salts
  • Salts of [FeCl in hydrochloric acid can be extracted into diethyl ether. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main disadvantage of direct acylation is the unfavorable chemical equilibrium that must be remedied (e.g. by a large excess of one of the reagents), or by the removal of water (e.g. by using Dean-Stark distillation, anhydrous salts, molecular sieves, or by using a stoichiometric quantity of acid catalyst). (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Dissolving iron ore in hydrochloric acid Fe3O4(s) + 8 HCl(aq) → FeCl2(aq) + 2 FeCl3(aq) + 4 H2O(l) Oxidation of iron (II) chloride with chlorine 2 FeCl2(aq) + Cl2(g) → 2 FeCl3(aq) Oxidation of iron (II) chloride with oxygen 4FeCl2(aq) + O2 + 4HCl → 4FeCl3(aq) + 2H2O(l) Small amounts can be produced by reacting iron with hydrochloric acid, then with hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Powder
  • In 1899 it was marketed for the first time under the trade name Aspirin, initially as a powder supplied in glass bottles. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • Low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue. (preparednessadvice.com)
  • Drug
  • 4,757,128 and 4,997,904 disclose the preparation of polyanhydrides with improved sustained drug release properties from pure, isolated prepolymers of diacids and acetic acid. (google.com)
  • people
  • Aspirin is also used long-term, at low doses, to help prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clot formation in people at high risk of developing blood clots. (preparednessadvice.com)
  • process
  • This process is usually performed as an inpatient, with a crash-cart at the bedside over a six-day period, beginning with 25 mg of I.V. lysine-aspirin and progressing to 500 mg if tolerated. (wikipedia.org)