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  • stump
  • When you cut off a salamander's leg, for instance, a blastema appears at the stump and then grows into a new leg with muscles, nerves etc all complete. (theregister.co.uk)
  • When a salamander loses its leg, it begins the healing process by transforming some of the cells in the stump into a "blastema" - a mass of dividing uncommitted cells. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The importance of nAG was demonstrated by the fact that even when a nerve was severed below the stump tip, which would normally prevent regrowth, the scientists were able to coax regeneration by artificially making cells produce the protein. (yahoo.com)
  • The EryCs were transported from the stump region to the blastema through regenerating blood vessels/capillaries that extend from the stump to the blastema. (phys.org)
  • Regrow Limbs
  • The short synopsis of my reading of this article is simply that by activating a gene that goes back to early evolution, we may be able to regrow limbs like Sponges, worms, or Starfish. (thinkatheist.com)
  • But maybe 20 years from now, we'll be able to have people born with the ability to regrow limbs, and that's a win for science. (thinkatheist.com)
  • gene
  • This method opens up the possibility of marking and perturbing gene function inducibly in any definable cell populations in the axolotl, a key functionality required for the precise, rigorous understanding of processes such as regeneration. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, it is apparently a salamander orphan gene implicated in limb regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the aid of recent advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), a study was conducted to identify and sequence the gene expression responsible for axolotl regeneration. (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • 2008). In the absence of a completed gene database, a comprehensive description of the spectrum of genes expressed during axolotl regeneration is unavailable. (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • One Gene Lost = One Limb Regained? (thinkatheist.com)
  • ScienceDaily (Mar. 16, 2010) - A quest that began over a decade ago with a chance observation has reached a milestone: the identification of a gene that may regulate regeneration in mammals. (thinkatheist.com)
  • In a study published in Scientific Reports , researchers at several Japanese universities, including the University of Tsukuba, and the University of Dayton, report the discovery of a novel gene, Newtic1, from the blastema of an adult newt. (phys.org)
  • This gene is expressed in a subset of red blood cells and may contribute to limb regeneration in adult newts. (phys.org)
  • A milestone was reached as scientists from the Wistar Institute announced a breakthrough in tissue regeneration in a mammal through the understanding and successful blocking of a single gene, p21 . (viewzone.com)
  • It was determined that this gene was responsible for preventing mammals from re-growing tissue like the salamander and zebra fish. (viewzone.com)
  • Systemic macrophage depletion during this period resulted in wound closure but permanent failure of limb regeneration, associated with extensive fibrosis and disregulation of extracellular matrix component gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Dedifferentiation
  • This process is called dedifferentiation, and the resulting blastema, a mass of unspecialized cells, proliferates rapidly to form a limb bud. (petersons.com)
  • In contrast with human fibroblasts, salamander fibroblasts initiate a dedifferentiation program following injury. (jcancer.org)
  • Previous studies suggest that the most abundant cells in the blastema are connective tissue fibroblasts that have undergone dedifferentiation [ 5 , 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • This process is generally referred to as the dedifferentiation step leading to the formation of blastema progenitors ( Iten and Bryant, 1973 ). (rupress.org)
  • This raises the question whether the in vivo dedifferentiation or reprogramming seen during regeneration has similarities to the in vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts to iPS cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • embryonic
  • According to the Wistar researchers, the loss of p21 causes the cells of these mice to behave more like embryonic stem cells than adult mammalian cells, and their findings provide solid evidence to link tissue regeneration to the control of cell division. (thinkatheist.com)
  • Then various specialized cells at the site, such as bone, skin, and blood cells, lose their identity and revert to cells as unspecialized as those in the embryonic limb bud. (petersons.com)
  • By comparing cells from the regeneration blastema with embryonic pluripotent reference cells we found that induced pluripotent stem and blastema cells do not share pluripotency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes
  • Cells in the primordia of zebrafish fins, for example, express four genes from the homeobox msx family during development and regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through this method, a comparison between a regeneration blastema in levels of differentiated expressed genes. (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • In the study, the researchers constructed a database of all the protein-coding genes from the Japanese fire-bellied newt that had been reported in the Japan newt research community. (phys.org)
  • To identify genes related to limb regeneration, they used statistical analyses to look for genes whose expression was increased in association with the formation of the limb blastema. (phys.org)
  • The expression patterns of genes known to be key players during fin regeneration were altered upon denervation, suggesting that nerves can contribute to the regulation of the Fgf, Wnt and Shh pathways during zebrafish fin regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • amphibians
  • Echinoderms (such as the sea star), crayfish, many reptiles, and amphibians exhibit remarkable examples of tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike typical mammals, which heal wounds by forming a scar, these mice begin by forming a blastema, a structure associated with rapid cell growth and de-differentiation as seen in amphibians. (thinkatheist.com)
  • In amphibians this process is regulated by nerve fibres present at the site of injury, which have been proposed to release factors into the amputated limbs/fins, promoting and sustaining the proliferation of blastemal cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • progenitors
  • Together, the data suggest that rather than inducing proliferation of mature cells, developmental pathways are reinstated, and that a pool of naïve progenitors at the blastema site forms the basis for this regeneration. (bioportfolio.com)
  • unclear
  • A German group headed by stem cell scientist Elly Tanaka, PhD, published similar results in salamanders in 2009, but it was unclear whether the findings would hold true in mammals. (blogspot.com)
  • Because of the restricted expression of Shh to the posterior margin, it remains unclear, however, whether Shh induces the limb polarity directly or through a secondary signal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathways
  • Reversion to developmental pathways underlies rapid arm regeneration in juvenile European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus 1758). (bioportfolio.com)
  • however, the identification of molecules and pathways implicated in regeneration has greatly outpaced the rate at which their function can be characterized in the animal. (biologists.org)
  • stem
  • This finding changes the current dogma of limb regeneration, from pluripotent blastema cells to tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells," said Rinkevich. (blogspot.com)
  • Limb regeneration is governed by the action of tissue-specific adult stem cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Some researchers had suggested that stem cells circulating in the blood could contribute to this type of regeneration. (blogspot.com)
  • In effect, newts are able to manipulate their bodies by turning cells into undifferentiated stem cells and then back into mature tissue again. (yahoo.com)
  • Dr. Pomerantz is a researcher at the UCSF Program in Craniofacial Biology (PCB) , and has affiliations with the UCSF Biomedical Sciences (BMS) Graduate Program, and The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCSF. (ucsf.edu)
  • We therefore propose a link between partially reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells and the half way state of blastema cells and suggest that a common mechanism might be regulating these two processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biology
  • In biology , regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes , cells , organisms , and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regeneration in biology, however, mainly refers to the morphogenic processes that characterize the phenotypic plasticity of traits allowing multi-cellular organisms to repair and maintain the integrity of their physiological and morphological states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the biology textbooks, there are the lopsided crayfish and the stumpy-tailed salamanders. (capeia.com)
  • He completed a residency at UCSF, a postdoctoral research fellowship in regeneration biology at Stanford University, and a fellowship in craniofacial surgery at the University of Washington. (ucsf.edu)
  • cells
  • Using these techniques, we have labeled and traced the PAX7-positive satellite cells as a major source contributing to myogenesis during axolotl limb regeneration. (pnas.org)
  • We show that replication-deficient foamy virus (FV) vectors efficiently transduce cells in two different regeneration models in cell culture and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We therefore sought a virus system that efficiently and stably infects salamander cells in vitro and in vivo and does not require pseudotyping and is not prone to silencing during initial and second round of regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on this feature we tested whether salamander cells would be transduced by FV vectors in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These progenitor cells continue to divide and form a large pool of cells at the wound site, called a blastema, that will later specialize and mature to help form the bone, muscle, cartilage, nerves and skin of the regenerated limb. (medgadget.com)
  • A blastema is the boffinry term for the clump of special progenitor cells which appears at injury sites in creatures naturally able to regenerate themselves, such as newts or salamanders. (theregister.co.uk)
  • In contrast, the blastema theory invokes a new pluripotent cell type formed out of urgency from previously specialized cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Now new research by a British team published on Thursday shows that a protein called nAG, secreted by nerve and skin cells, plays a central role in producing a clump of immature cells, known as a blastema, which regrows the missing part. (yahoo.com)
  • We have found that pseudotyped Maloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MMLV) retroviruses can very efficiently infect axolotl cells in vitro and in vivo , and can be used for both lineage and functional analyses in regenerating limbs. (biologists.org)
  • Ultimately, when the new limb takes shape, the cells take on the specialized roles they had previously cast off. (petersons.com)
  • A the cells recover their specialized roles after the limb bud takes shape. (petersons.com)
  • C specialized cells migrate to the site of the blastema and proliferate rapidly. (petersons.com)
  • In model organisms, regeneration usually occurs as the induction of proliferation in differentiated cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Plant cells have a remarkable plasticity that allows cellular reprogramming from differentiated cells and subsequent tissue regeneration. (bioportfolio.com)
  • and it has remained unsettled whether adult newts possess a cellular population that is equal to mammalian satellite cells. (rupress.org)
  • The blastema is a mass of undifferentiated cells -- much like the cells of an embryo -- which have the ability to change into skin, bone and vascular cells, as needed. (viewzone.com)
  • Much progress has been made in understanding how to control the differentiation of different cell types to provide the building blocks for regeneration, such as the bone, muscle, blood vessels, and nerves/Schwann cells. (springer.com)
  • Recent research shows signaling conversations between the neurons and blastema cells as well as neurons and cancer cells. (jonlieffmd.com)
  • However these factors were not upregulated during regeneration as would be expected if blastema cells acquired pluripotency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After the loss of an appendage undifferentiated, pluri- or multipotent cells from different origins accumulate at the damaged surface to form a regeneration blastema. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the heterogeneous origin of the blastema cells, histologically they appear as a homogeneous population of cells and therefore have been traditionally viewed as a single cell type. (biomedcentral.com)