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  • Membrane Proteins
  • A Transmembrane Ubiquitin Ligase Required to Sort Membrane Proteins into Multivesicular Bodies Nature Cell Biology. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11788821 Membrane proteins with transmembrane domains (TMDs) that contain polar residues exposed to the lipid bilayer are selectively sorted into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and delivered to the yeast vacuole. (jove.com)
  • We have identified a transmembrane ubiquitin ligase, Tul1, that is resident in the Golgi apparatus and is required for the ubiquitination of proteins with polar TMDs, including vacuolar proteins such as carboxypeptidase S. We suggest that Tul1 provides quality control, identifying misfolded membrane proteins and marking them for transport to endosomes and degradation in the vacuole. (jove.com)
  • Intercisternal exchange is confirmed both for small membrane proteins and large protein complexes. (pnas.org)
  • Our analysis makes a definitive case for the existence of intercisternal exchange both for small membrane proteins and large protein complexes--this implies that membrane structures larger than the typical protein-coated vesicles must be involved in transport. (pnas.org)
  • Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are a unique class of functionally diverse membrane proteins defined by their single C-terminal membrane-spanning domain and their ability to insert post-translationally into specific organelles with an N cytoplasm -C organelle interior orientation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study we demonstrate that, whereas VPS45 and VPS27 are required for the vacuolar delivery of several membrane proteins, the vacuolar membrane protein alkaline phosphatase (ALP) reaches its final destination without the function of these two genes. (nih.gov)
  • resident proteins
  • Each organelle contains a discrete set of resident proteins required for the proper functioning of that compartment. (rupress.org)
  • To discriminate between the different models of intra-Golgi transport, we suggest experiments and an analysis based on our extended theoretical framework that compare the dynamics of transiting and resident proteins. (pnas.org)
  • pancreatic
  • It is an essential element, serving both a structural role, as in the formation of zinc fingers in DNA-binding proteins, and a catalytic role in metalloenzymes, such as pancreatic carboxypeptidases (e.g. (genecards.org)
  • homologous
  • We found that C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key signaling protein of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was transcriptionally up-regulated following incubation of gastric epithelial cells with VacA. (jove.com)
  • distinct
  • Each cisterna has a distinct chemical identity, allowing progressive protein maturation from the cis to the trans face ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • This motif is conspicuously absent, however, in all but one of the TA protein subunits of the translocon at the outer membrane of mitochondria (TOM), suggesting that these two groups of proteins utilize distinct biogenetic pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • maturation
  • Two models compete to explain the way proteins transit through the Golgi, a cellular organelle consisting of stacked membrane-bound compartments (cisternae) and responsible for protein maturation and sorting. (pnas.org)
  • The Golgi apparatus, a complex cellular organelle responsible for lipid and protein maturation and sorting, has attracted a great deal of attention, with many conflicting viewpoints regarding its mechanisms of transport. (pnas.org)
  • functionally
  • Consistent with this premise, we show that the TA sequences of the dibasic-containing proteins are both necessary and sufficient for targeting to mitochondria, and are interchangeable, while the TA regions of TOM proteins lacking a dibasic motif are necessary, but not sufficient for localization, and cannot be functionally exchanged. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibodies
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • Golgi
  • A third yeast protein, Smf3p, appears to be exclusively intracellular, possibly in the Golgi. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have developed a transport model that can quantify the importance of intercisternal exchange by analyzing the spatiotemporal evolution of a protein distribution within the Golgi. (pnas.org)
  • A ) Proteins synthesized in the ER go through the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) before entering the Golgi through its cis face. (pnas.org)
  • The transport of apical cargo from the Golgi was shown to be specifically decreased by adenovirus-mediated RNA interference directed against PI(4)P adaptor protein (FAPP) 2. (rupress.org)
  • The molecular machinery that is responsible for the generation of post-Golgi carriers is poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • vesicle-mediated
  • After receiving his PhD in 1987, he carried out postdoctoral studies on mechanisms of vesicle-mediated intracellular protein transport with Randy Schekman at University of California, Berkeley. (ucla.edu)
  • soluble
  • Among the physicochemically and structurally diverse disulfide-rich seed storage proteins, soluble storage proteins are transported through the endomembrane system from the ER to PSVs, where they accumulate [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • organelle
  • The C-terminal TMD of a TA protein also dictates its characteristic membrane orientation, whereby the N-terminal portion of the protein, which often represents the majority of the polypeptide and contains the functional domain(s), faces the cytoplasm, while the C-terminal sequence (CTS) downstream of the TMD, which usually contains organelle-specific targeting information, protrudes into the organelle's interior ( Borgese and Fasana, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • pathways involved
  • This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of the various disulfide transfer pathways involved in oxidative protein folding in the ER, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of plants. (hindawi.com)
  • Archaea
  • Homologues of this family are found in various yeasts, plants, animals, archaea, and Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria termed "natural resistance-associated" macrophage proteins because one of the animal homologues plays a role in resistance to intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Leishmania donovani and Mycobacterium bovis. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The final step in ccv formation, scission of the membrane connecting the nascent vesicle to the donor membrane, depends on a class of membrane-bending proteins that carry a BAR domain. (ucla.edu)
  • Roles
  • Roles for adaptor-associated proteins in ccv-mediated TGN-endosome traffic are also being investigated. (ucla.edu)
  • mitochondria
  • Along with mitochondria and chloroplasts, peroxisomes primarily regulate their numbers through the growth and division of pre-existing organelles, and they house specific machinery for protein import. (frontiersin.org)
  • also referred to as PTP, mTP or MTP) is a protein that is formed in the inner membrane of the mitochondria under certain pathological conditions such as traumatic brain injury and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • ubiquitous
  • We cloned an ubiquitous 80-kDa protein, identical to CD2-associated protein/Cas ligand with multiple SH3 domains (CD2AP/CMS), that interacts with Rab4-Q67L in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. (jove.com)
  • cells
  • Pathogens can secret effectors to plant cells to suppress PTI but some of the effectors may be recognized by plant resistance (R) proteins and activate effector-triggered immunity, a strong defense often manifested as hypersensitive response (HR) ( Jones and Dangl, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The developing endosperm cells of seeds actively synthesize large amounts of storage proteins that acquire disulfide bonds in the ER. (hindawi.com)
  • structural
  • As a consequence of this unique structural feature, the TMD of a TA protein emerges from the ribosome only after the termination of translation. (frontiersin.org)