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  • phosphoinositide 3-kina
  • There are multiple types of phosphoinositide 3-kinase but only class I are responsible for lipid phosphorylation in response to growth stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is atypical in that unlike other PKC isoforms, PKCζ does not require calcium or diacylglycerol (DAG) to become active, but rather relies on a different second messenger, presumably generated through a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hou, L. and Klann, E. (2004) Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase - Akt - mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway is required for metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Proteasome inhibitors are attractive cancer therapeutic agents because they can regulate apoptosis-related proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • p38 MAPK inhibitors, especially, have been developed and are now in phase II clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (bmj.com)
  • This theory arose from the observation that PKMζ perfused post synaptically into neurons causes synaptic potentiation, and selective inhibitors of PKMζ like zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP), when bath applied one hour after tetanization, inhibit the late phase or maintenance of LTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell cycle progression is negatively controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (called CDIs, CKIs or CDKIs). (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • To investigate the influence of p38 MAPK inhibition on acute phase protein (APP) production, which is dependent on both JAK/STAT and p38 MAPK pathways. (bmj.com)
  • 2002
  • Knapp, L.T. and Klann, E. (2002) Potentiation of hippocampal synaptic transmission by superoxide requires the oxidative activation of protein kinase C. J. Neurosci. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Participants will be screened with a medical history, physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies, and potentially, tumor biopsy tests to determine whether a participant's NSCLC contains mutations in the KRAS protein. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PD biomarker changes observed in plasma angiogenic proteins are correlated with lenvatinib-induced tumor shrinkage and AEs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several function as tumor suppressor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • Second messengers stimulate PKCs by binding to the regulatory domain, translocating the enzyme from cytosol to membrane, and producing a conformational change that removes auto-inhibition of the PKC catalytic protein kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologs
  • Studies of the mouse and rat homologs have localized the kinase to the chromosomes during meiosis in spermatogenesis, specifically to the synaptonemal complex that exists while homologous chromosomes are paired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The association of impaired acute insulin release with the progression to type 2 diabetes underscores the significance of acute-phase insulin secretion in metabolic regulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, despite the physiological importance of acute-phase insulin release, its regulation and underlying molecular mechanisms remain unresolved. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CKS1B and CKS2 proteins have demonstrated principal roles in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKC-α is unique in its mode of regulation compared to other kinases within this family. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the protein kinase family is regulated by allosteric regulation, the binding of a modulating molecule that effects a conformational change in the enzyme and thus a change in the enzyme's activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • KIF23 (also known as Kinesin-6, CHO1/MKLP1, C. elegans ZEN-4 and Drosophila Pavarotti) is a member of kinesin-like protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In conclusion, these results confirmed that cholera toxin specifically inhibited proliferation and induced G1 phase arrest in human bladder TCC cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • mRNA
  • The CKS1B mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects a specialized role for the encoded protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. (nih.gov)
  • There are 3 F-box classes: Fbws having WD-40 domains, Fbls having leucine-rich replicates, and Fbxs having either diverse protein-protein interaction or no recognizable motifs. (creativebiomart.net)
  • cellular
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which mediates cellular endocytosis of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • During G1 phase, the G1/S cyclin activity rises significantly near the end of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteome
  • It can be used in projects ranging from large-scale whole proteome to focusing on a single protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example of this is a study by Washburn, Wolters, & Yates in which they used shotgun proteomics on the proteome of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain grown to mid-log phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to other histone proteins, histone H2B has a distinct histone fold that is optimized for histone-histone as well as histone-DNA interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • dimer
  • They are found in eukaryotic cells, as well as some bacteria, and are formed by the polymerization of a dimer of two globular proteins, alpha and beta tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • 168 of 444 (37.8%) LPS-induced proteins were significantly reduced with the treatment of RGFP966, which mainly concentrated on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • In this regard, we selected Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR3, TLR6, MAPK p38, CD36, and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) for further validation and found that they were all significantly upregulated after LPS stimulation and downregulated in the presence of RGFP966. (hindawi.com)
  • Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • verification needed] Phase II results for breast cancer that over-expresses the protein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2-positive breast cancer) were described as promising by the authors, with 19 of 41 patients achieving benefit from afatinib. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC25
  • Wipf, P., "Discovery and biological evaluation of a new family of potent inhibitors of the dual specificity protein phosphatase Cdc25. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • The protein in serum ferritin is considered benign, but it has lost ( i.e. dumped) most of its normal complement of iron which when unliganded is highly toxic. (rsc.org)
  • Cells containing the protein complement desired are grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that resides in multiple locations in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cytoplasm, the encoded protein may function to regulate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitotic
  • the post-mitotic and pre-mitotic phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the beginning of the G1 phase (which is also after mitosis has occurred) and R, the cell is known as being in the G1-pm subphase, or the post-mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the mitotic phase, the chromosomes separate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Recent conceptual and technological advances have enabled systems immunology analyses, which reveal the composition of immune cells and proteins in populations of healthy individuals. (humanimmunologynews.com)
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human somatic cells, the cell cycle lasts about 18 hours, and the G1 phase takes up about 1/3 of that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone H2B is one of the 5 main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore acts as a tumor suppressor that is implicated in the prevention of cancers, notably melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • immune
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • However, in Xenopus embryos, sea urchin embryos, and Drosophila embryos, the G1 phase is barely existent and is defined as the gap, if one exists, between the end of mitosis and the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • However, the newly synthesized proteins must be activated before they are functional which requires a persistent signal of second messenger. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Shotgun proteomics can be used for functional classification or comparative analysis of these protein products. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for missions to the Moon, establishment of a lunar base, and interplanetary travel to Mars, the functional requirements for human performance during each specific phase of these missions have not been sufficiently defined to determine whether currently developed countermeasures are adequate to meet physical performance requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • IL-6 is now well recognized for its role in the acute phase of inflammatory response which is characterized by production of a variety of hepatic proteins known as acute phase proteins (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha II-spectrin, also known as Spectrin alpha chain, brain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPTAN1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • They are members of the group C family of G-protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion, intercellular communication and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Prevention and treatment of this terminal phase of prostate cancer requires improved molecular understanding of the process as well as markers indicative of molecular progression. (nih.gov)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • We propose a self-sustained regulation of PKMζ activity through another autonomously active kinase PDK1. (beds.ac.uk)
  • complex
  • To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special degradative tag, the ubiquitinylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1975, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) was described by O'Farrell and Klose with the ability to resolve complex protein mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many proteins that bind to microtubules, including the motor proteins kinesin and dynein, severing proteins like katanin, and other proteins important for regulating microtubule dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • potent
  • We manipulated the response to PMA using a potent synthetic agonist of PPARδ , compound F. THP-1 sub-lines that either over-expressed PPARδ protein, or expressed PPARδ anti-sense RNA were generated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • found
  • This partnership is found mainly in the S-phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently an actin-like protein has been found in a gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms a microtubule-like structure and is involved in plasmid segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • After Fas stimulation, Daxx is activated and plays its role of pro-apoptotic protein in activating the c-JUN-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway. (wikipedia.org)