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  • neoprene
  • Studies published in 1930 written independently by Lebedev, the American Wallace Carothers and the German scientist Hermann Staudinger led in 1931 to one of the first successful synthetic rubbers, known as neoprene, which was developed at DuPont under the direction of E.K. Bolton. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1890s
  • From the late 1890s, Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre began to acquire its own rubber mills, and began to process rubber, whereas previously it had assembled tyres using components from other manufacturers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expanded use of bicycles, and particularly their pneumatic tires, starting in the 1890s, created increased demand for rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cities of Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, South Carolina both claim to be the birthplace of half-rubber as early as the 1890s. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoprene
  • Natural rubber , also called India rubber or caoutchouc , as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene , with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural rubber is a polyterpene, i.e., it consists of isoprene molecules linked into loosely twisted chains. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After a number of successful attempts, researchers working with Derek P. Gates at the University of British Columbia (Vancouver, Canada) wanted to apply this concept to molecules that contain both P=C and C=C double bonds: phosphorus analogs of the building block of rubber, isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) and its close relative, 1,3-butadiene. (eurekalert.org)
  • lump
  • Estate brown crepe (EBC) is made from "cup lump" (raw, naturally coagulated rubber from the collection cup) and other coagulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congo
  • Congo rubber , formerly a major source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia ( L. kirkii , L. heudelotis , and L. owariensis ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rubber was exported from the Belgian Congo, starting in 1890. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congo rubber was a commercial rubber most notable for its forced harvesting under conditions of great human suffering, in the Congo Free State, detailed in the 1904 Casement Report. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some estimates, that during 1885-1908 about 10 million people were killed in rubber industry in Congo. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 1905 article (shortly after the peak of Congo production): Red Kasai and Congo rubbers are obtained from the same species of vines, namely, the Landolphia, Owariensis Pal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bosanga method is described in the 1907 Journal of the African Society (as noted in a preface and postscript by the editor, a vastly more pleasant description than the outraged accounts of the Congo Reform Association a few years previous): Makala is one of the great rubber centres of the Congo, and during my long stay at that post, I had excellent opportunities of studying the method of rubber-collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Like other similar projectiles made from plastic , wax , and wood , rubber bullets may be used for short range practice and animal control, but are most commonly associated with use in riot control and to disperse protests . (wikipedia.org)
  • The larger rubber bulbs are commonly used to draw liquid through a pipette when the reagents are needed in a larger amount. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are very commonly used for droppers as small sized rubber bulbs help control the amount of drops more precisely. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rubber band (also known as an elastic band or gum band) is a loop of rubber, usually ring shaped, and commonly used to hold multiple objects together. (wikipedia.org)
  • commercial
  • In 2013, by inhibiting one key enzyme and using modern cultivation methods and optimization techniques, scientists in the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME) in Germany developed a cultivar that is suitable for commercial production of natural rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advantages of natural rubber are less buildup of heat from flexing and greater resistance to tearing when hot. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other general purpose elastomers are cis -polybutadiene and cis -polyisoprene, whose properties are also close to that of natural rubber. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Goodyear's 1839 discovery of the vulcanization of natural rubber obtained from rubber trees marks the beginning of the modern rubber industry. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the journal Angewandte Chemie , scientists have now introduced a new, interesting variant: a phosphorus-containing rubber with a structure that corresponds to that of natural rubber. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since T is always positive (it can never reach absolute zero), the ΔS must be negative, implying that the rubber in its natural state is more entangled (with more microstates) than when it is under tension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Political problems that resulted from great fluctuations in the cost of natural rubber led to the enactment of the Stevenson Act in 1921. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 1944, a total of 50 factories were manufacturing it, pouring out a volume of the material twice that of the world's natural rubber production before the beginning of the war. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural rubber Forestry Maple syrup Chico Mendes My unforgettable rubber tapping experience, KTemoc Kongsamkok, August 21, 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • As the rubber-laden caravan of men, women and children, headed by the chief and the forest-guard, wind their way from their village into the post, discordant notes are blown on a trumpet made from an antelope-horn, and all chant a chorus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rubber glove is a glove made out of rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rubber bands are made by extruding the rubber into a long tube to provide its general shape, putting the tubes on mandrels, curing the rubber with heat, and then slicing it across the width of the tube into little bands. (wikipedia.org)
  • This rubber was made of small black crumb pieces that came from old tires. (wikipedia.org)
  • pneumatic
  • For your riding comfort, this 9-5/8" dia x 3" wide pneumatic tire has a plastic hub, rubber treads and a 25psi inner tube. (sciplus.com)
  • The Dublin Corporation had launched a case against Pneumatic Tyre claiming nuisance from the smell of rubber and naphtha. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1901 Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre used its majority holding to rename Rubber Tyre Manufacturing - Dunlop Rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tires
  • These 6" dia solid rubber wheels are gray with (5) treads on 1-7/8" wide tires. (sciplus.com)
  • Military trucks needed rubber for tires, and rubber was used in almost every other war machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crumb rubber is recycled rubber produced from automotive and truck scrap tires. (wikipedia.org)
  • Athletic surfaces and fields (rubber mulch) Agrimats and equestrian footing Automotive parts and tires Construction/indoor Landscape, trails and walkways Molded and extruded products Playground and other safety surfaces Rubber modified asphalt and sealants Rubber and plastic blends When dealing with asphalt overlays, reflection cracks can arise and cause an unwanted crack pattern beneath the pavement. (wikipedia.org)
  • bark
  • Each night a rubber tapper must remove a thin layer of bark along a downward half spiral on the tree trunk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climbing the rubber-bearing tree or vine, they slash the bark with two or three V-shaped cuts, one below the other, and then arrange a broad leaf underneath, so as to form a trough. (wikipedia.org)
  • vines
  • The rubber from trees and vines is mixed promiscuously, the natives preferring to tap the latter, as they say it flows more freely. (wikipedia.org)
  • elastic
  • The monomer units along the backbone of the carbon chains are in a cis arrangement (see isomer ) and it is this spatial configuration that gives rubber its highly elastic character. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The result is that a rubber band behaves somewhat like an ideal monatomic gas inasmuch as (to good approximation) that elastic polymers do not store any potential energy in stretched chemical bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rubber-modified asphalt uses stress absorbing membranes that reduce the reflective cracking because of its elastic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • duck
  • The song is named after Ernie's toy, a rubber duck affectionately named Rubber Duckie. (wikipedia.org)
  • The song had follow-ups "Do De Rubber Duck" and "D-U-C-K-I-E" and was the centerpiece of 1988's "Put Down the Duckie", performed by Hoots the Owl but also featuring Ernie. (wikipedia.org)
  • tyres
  • Based in Queensland, Big Tyre Pty Ltd has been manufacturing tyres, wheels and rubber tracks for over 50 years. (ferret.com.au)
  • Dunlop Rubber failed to adapt to evolving market conditions in the 1970s despite having recognised by the mid 1960s the potential drop in demand as the new much more durable tyres swept throughout the market. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • In Nazi Germany , research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In information technology the term 'Rubber tapping' is sometimes used as a lampoon for planned production deployments, where the timing of the deployment is crucial. (wikipedia.org)
  • gloves
  • Rubber gloves can be unsupported (rubber only) or supported (rubber coating of textile glove). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rubber gloves can be worn during dishwashing to protect the hands from detergent and allow the use of hotter water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes caregivers will use rubber gloves during the diaper changing process to prevent contact with the child's fecal material/urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health professionals use medical gloves rather than rubber gloves when performing surgical operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Household rubber gloves have been used for washing dishes and cleaning in the home since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rubber gloves are best worn with a skin tight fit which, while still allowing for the hands to breathe, makes it easier to hold objects and manipulate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • Hence, PTC rubber is a PTC material with very strong PTC characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PTC rubber material is a self-regulating heater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crumb rubber is also used as ground cover under playground equipment, and as a surface material for running tracks and athletic fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • 71% recoverable rubber 14% steel 3% fiber 12% extraneous material The following are common classifications of crumb rubber: Retreaders tire buffings shall consist of clean, fresh, dry buffings from tire retread preparation operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, rubber bands numbered 8-19 are all 1/16 inch wide, with lengths going from 7/8 inch to 3​1⁄2 inches. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Acrylic rubber, known by the chemical name alkyl acrylate copolymer (ACM) or the tradename HyTemp, is a type of rubber that has outstanding resistance to hot oil and oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1935, German chemists synthesized the first of a series of synthetic rubbers known as Buna rubbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Half-rubber, also known as halfball, is a bat-and-ball game similar to stick ball or baseball. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red colour of the rubber appears to be accentuated more and more as the district in which the vine is cultivated is farther from the zone known as the Great Equatorial Forest. (wikipedia.org)
  • diameter
  • The older type, the standard rubber bullet, is a steel sphere coated in a thin layer of rubber, weighing 14 grams, while the newly improved rubber bullet, introduced in 1989, is a rubber-coated metal cylinder 1.7 cm in diameter, weighing 15.4 grams. (wikipedia.org)
  • One company, for example, makes both rubber buckshot rounds, containing 15 8.3mm diameter rubber balls per cartridge, and rubber baton rounds, containing a single 4.75-gram projectile. (wikipedia.org)
  • WHEELS
  • These hard rubber wheels measure 3" dia x 1" with a 5/16" ID and a hub that extends exactly one perfect smidgen, making them 1-3/16" wide at the axle. (sciplus.com)
  • Smaller
  • Smaller rubber bullets are used in riot shotguns and are available in a variety of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smaller rubber bulbs are well suited with small pipettes to draw smaller amount of reagents and can attach to both glass, as well as plastic rods. (wikipedia.org)
  • injuries
  • In a study of injuries in 90 patients injured by rubber bullets, 2 died, 18 suffered permanent disabilities or deformities and 44 required hospital treatment after being fired upon with rubber bullets. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • Crumb rubber is often used in artificial turf as cushioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the artificial rubber resists the formation of cracks and has an anti-aging effect that keeps the asphalt in a better condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crumb rubber is used in the "infill" in artificial turf systems to make the surface safe. (wikipedia.org)
  • tree
  • Others that have been commercially exploited, or at least showed promise as rubber sources, include the rubber fig ( Ficus elastica ), Panama rubber tree ( Castilla elastica ), various spurges ( Euphorbia spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America . (wikipedia.org)
  • Michon and de Foresta (1994) found that sample jungle rubber sites contained 92 tree species, 97 lianas, and 28 epiphytes compared with 171, 89, and 63, respectively, in the primary forest, and compared with 1, 1, and 2 in monoculture estates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoculture rubber tree plantations have far less of an environmental impact than other crops, such as coffee or especially oil palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • commercially
  • The company Thiokol applied their name to a competing type of rubber based on ethylene dichloride which was commercially available in 1930. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • The rubber riot control bullet is part of a long line of development of non-lethal control cartridges that dates back to the use of short sections of broom handle fired at demonstrators in Singapore in the 1880s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Half-rubber regulations call for a stick 48" long, while halfball experts state 41" long and 1¼" thick as a standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long before the party reaches the post, this barbaric music, ever increasing in volume, heralds their approach to the official in charge, and he makes his preparations to receive the rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • In about ten minutes the rubber, owing to the acid in the bosanga, begins to collect round the stick, and soon a mass is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Thiollay (1995) estimated that jungle rubber supports about 137 bird species, against 241 in the primary forest itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Landolphia Klainei also gives a reddish rubber when grown under the same conditions as the above mentioned species. (wikipedia.org)
  • thermal
  • In other words, the ability to convert thermal energy into work while the rubber relaxes is allowed by the higher entropy of the relaxed state. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • During the recycling process, steel and tire cord (fluff) are removed, leaving tire rubber with a granular consistency. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • In Northern Ireland over 35 years (1970-2005), about 125,000 rubber and plastic bullets were fired-an average of ten per day-causing 17 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 1896 du Cros formed a new company, Rubber Tyre Manufacturing, to acquire Byrne Bros. E J Byrne was contracted to be managing director for five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some young half-rubber players went on to play professional baseball for the Negro Leagues during segregation, claiming that they got to be good hitters because it was easy to hit a whole baseball with a thick bat after years of swinging at a half-ball with a skinny broomstick. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • Rubber science is a science fiction term describing a quasi-scientific explanation for an aspect of a science fiction setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term was coined by Norman Spinrad in an essay entitled "Rubber Sciences", in Reginald Bretnor's anthology The Craft of Science Fiction. (wikipedia.org)