• Fenton process-affected transformation of roxarsone in paddy rice soils: effects on plant growth and arsenic accumulation in rice grain. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Postedge XANES features of litter particles are dissimilar to those of the organo-As(V) compound in poultry feed (i.e., roxarsone), suggesting possible degradation/transformation of roxarsone in the litter and/or in poultry digestive tracts. (usgs.gov)
  • The benzenearsonate, Roxarsone, has been used since 1944 as an antimicrobial, growth-promoting poultry feed additive. (scirp.org)
  • Until recently, chicken producers would routinely supplement poultry feed with a growth-promoting arsenical drug called roxarsone, which also treats intestinal parasites in the birds and gives their meat an appealing pink color. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Food & Water Watch, a national consumer advocacy group, is calling on the Maryland Legislature to pass a ban on the use of arsenic (in the form of roxarsone, as an antibiotic) in poultry feed. (poultryworld.net)
  • Last month they passed a bill banning the use of Roxarsone and other arsenic-based drugs in chicken feed after two years of strong opposition to such a measure from the vast poultry enterprise on the Eastern Shore. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Our study gives the FDA a clear rationale for withdrawing its approval for roxarsone and potentially other arsenic-based drugs in animal agriculture," Nachman says. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The law would take effect Jan. 1 for hundreds of growers on the Eastern Shore that continue to use Roxarsone as an antibiotic with a side effect that bursts blood vessels, making meat look pink and plump. (washingtonpost.com)
  • That thinking was firmly contradicted last year by an FDA study that found trace amounts of inorganic arsenic in the livers of chickens that were fed Roxarsone and then slaughtered for tests. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In 2011 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found that the livers of roxarsone-treated chickens had elevated levels of iAs, a known human carcinogen. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Roxarsone, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, is an organoarsenic compound that is used extensively in the feed of broiler poultryto control coccidial intestinal parasites, improve feed efficiency, and promote rapid growth. (usgs.gov)
  • Results from cells dosed at 10 μM for 24 hours with AHBA, Roxarsone, or Acetarsone indicated 6%-29% permeation occurring from apical to basolateral side, modeling absorption across intestinal epithelium to the circulatory system. (scirp.org)
  • A known poison, arsenic is often added to chicken feed in the form of the compound roxarsone to control the common intestinal disease coccidiosis, to promote growth and as a cosmetic additive. (blogspot.com)
  • Environmentalists and food advocates have complained for years about the use of arsenic-laced Roxarsone (aka 3-Nitro) in chicken feed as a growth promoter and anti-parasitic. (chicagotribune.com)
  • For more than 60 years, poultry growers, drug companies and the Food and Drug Administration said Roxarsone, sold under the brand 3-Nitro, contained a harmless form of organic arsenic that is present in almost everything in nature, including a glass of drinking water. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Roxarsone is an organic form of arsenic, which although less toxic to humans than the inorganic species implicated in cancer, has been shown to affect the growth of endothelial cells in culture. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Food & Water Watch has targeted the organic - or less-toxic - form of arsenic found in roxarsone, which is consumed by poultry and mostly excreted into the environment. (poultryworld.net)
  • Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. (usgs.gov)
  • the primary arsenic species extracted with water from dried litter was roxarsone. (usgs.gov)
  • However, when water was added to litter at about 50 wt % and the mixture was allowed to compost at 40 o C, the speciation of arsenic shifted from roxarsone to primarily arsenate in about 30 days. (usgs.gov)
  • Samples collected from a variety of litter windrows in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Maryland also showed that roxarsone originally present had been converted to arsenate. (usgs.gov)
  • Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, also known more simply as Rox is a well-known feed supplement. (spectroscopynow.com)
  • Dr. Keeve Nachman, director of farming for the Future Program at the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future notes that "approval of roxarsone for use in poultry and swine production is based on sorely outdated science that ignores both our present-day understanding of arsenic's toxicity and the potential for arsenic to contaminate soils, water and crops where animal waste is spread. (blogspot.com)
  • The FDA and new EHP studies each suggest that roxarsone can transform into iAs and accumulate in the edible portions of the birds, making the toxic metal available for human consumption. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Delmarva Poultry Industry adamantly defends the use of roxarsone, citing a variety of sources including the Periodic Table, the Food and Drug Administration and the National Academy of Sciences. (poultryworld.net)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration announced that Alpharma, a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc., will voluntarily suspend US sales of the animal drug 3-Nitro (Roxarsone), a product used by poultry producers since the 1940s. (poultryworld.net)
  • To fight the bug, Richardson was one of many growers who relied on a controversial remedy, Roxarsone, a drug containing arsenic. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Asked in committee hearings whether Roxarsone contaminated soil, the researchers said yes, adding that studies showed the practice is unsustainable. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Sampling for the new study took place between December 2010 and June 2011, before Pfizer withdrew roxarsone from the U.S. market. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In 2006, approximately one million kilograms of roxarsone were produced in the U.S. Roxarsone is one of four arsenical animal drugs that had been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in poultry and swine, along with nitarsone, arsanilic acid, and carbarsone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2013, the FDA announced that Zoetis and Fleming Laboratories would voluntarily withdraw current roxarsone, arsanilic acid, and carbarsone approvals, leaving only nitarsone approvals in place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arsenicals (roxarsone and nitarsone) used in poultry production likely increase inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and roxarsone or nitarsone concentrations in poultry meat. (nih.gov)
  • For poultry and swine, arsanilic acid was among four arsenical veterinary drugs, along with carbarsone, nitarsone, roxarsone, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug Roxarsone and Nitarsone makes the chickens grow bigger faster and gives their unhealthy and diseased grey battery cage skin an artificial pink colour to make them look healthy. (island.lk)
  • The makers of Roxarsone, Nitarsone and the American Food and Drug Administration justified and allowed its use on the grounds that the arsenic used was organic. (island.lk)
  • However the company continues to sell Roxarsone and Nitarsone abroad. (island.lk)
  • Moreover, Pfizer still sells nitarsone, another arsenical drug similar to roxarsone. (gracelinks.org)
  • Pfizer still domestically markets the arsenical drug nitarsone, which is chemically similar to roxarsone. (healthcanal.com)
  • Roxarsone was marketed as 3-Nitro by Zoetis, a former subsidiary of Pfizer now a publicly traded company. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pfizer Animal Health's Canadian arm and Winnipeg veterinary drug distributor Dominion Veterinary Laboratories will voluntarily suspend sales of roxarsone, as sold in the products 3-Nitro-20 and Super Nitro-12, effective Aug. 8. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Recent studies reporting the presence of arsenic residues in chicken [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] have led to the voluntary stoppage of the sale of the most commonly used orgnoarsenical, roxarsone, produced by Alpharma, a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc. [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Don't let that completely ruin your appetite -- as a result of FDA's tests, Alpharma, a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc., is voluntarily suspending U.S. sales of Roxarsone for chickens within 30 days. (ewg.org)
  • The findings prompted Pfizer to pull Roxarsone off the market in the U.S. (the European Union banned arsenic in poultry feed in 1999). (ewg.org)
  • Tellingly, Pfizer announced that it would withdraw Roxarsone from the market starting next month. (civileats.com)
  • One such drug is roxarsone, made by Pfizer. (mofga.org)
  • But as it turns out, the pharmaceutical company Pfizer, which makes the arsenic-laced additive roxarsone, has decided to suspend its sales. (plos.org)
  • As a result, Pfizer - or more specifically, its subsidiary, Alpharma , will suspend sales of roxarsone in 30 days while further tests are conducted. (plos.org)
  • Yet, in June 2011, the FDA gave Pfizer 30 days to discontinue selling Roxarsone, a proven carcinogen. (commondreams.org)
  • Pfizer Inc., the company that produces roxarsone, stopped selling the chemical in July after a U.S. Food and Drug Administration study found higher inorganic arsenic levels in chickens given the additive. (wbaltv.com)
  • Last year, Roxarsone was voluntarily taken off the market by Alpharma, a Pfizer Inc. subsidiary, while the Food and Drug Administration reviews whether regulatory action is needed. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Although pharmaceutical giant Pfizer voluntarily pulled roxarsone from the US market in 2011, it can still sell the drug abroad - and other than the sort of basic commitment to social responsibility that big players in the industrial livestock sector love to advertise yet incessantly avoid, there's nothing stopping Pfizer from reintroducing roxarsone to the US market ( i.e. , the FDA hasn't actually banned its use). (gracelinks.org)
  • Conventional, antibiotic-free, and USDA Organic chicken samples were purchased from 10 U.S. metropolitan areas between December 2010 and June 2011, when an arsenic-based drug then manufactured by Pfizer and known as roxarsone was readily available to poultry companies that wished to add it to their feed. (healthcanal.com)
  • In July 2011, Pfizer voluntarily removed roxarsone from the U.S. market, but the company may sell the drug overseas and could resume marketing it in the U.S. at any time. (healthcanal.com)
  • A Pfizer subsidiary that makes the animal drug Roxarsone has since halted sales after a Food and Drug Administration study found low levels of arsenic in the livers of broiler chickens. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The new FDA study, the results of which Pfizer was made aware of in early May, detected increased levels of inorganic arsenic in the livers of chickens treated with the Roxarsone. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Pfizer is giving the animal agriculture sector 30 days to find alternatives and transition away from Roxarsone before suspending its sale - and the move might not be permanent - but Flynn told reporters: "We've gotten a clear assurance from Pfizer that they will not return the product to the market unless they've first addressed all of FDA's concerns. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that Alpharma, a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc. will voluntarily suspend U.S. sales of the animal drug 3-Nitro (Roxarsone), a product used by poultry producers since the 1940's. (thedogpress.com)
  • There are around 100 arsenic-containing drug formulations currently approved for use in healthy chickens to promote growth, improve pigmentation, and prevent disease, including Roxarsone, which Pfizer voluntarily and temporarily suspended sales of in July of 2011. (blackdoctor.org)
  • Some poultry producers say they have voluntarily stopped using the arsenic, but subsequent tests and oddly high sales volumes of the arsenic-containing feed (Roxarsone) suggest that may not be the case. (mnn.com)
  • Production of the feed additive roxarsone ceased voluntarily in 2011 after the FDA detected inorganic arsenic in the livers of chickens that ate it. (medscape.com)
  • Roxarsone still continues to be sold by [drug company] Zoetis in Latin America" and is still approved for use here, Johns Hopkins' Nachman says, despite the fact that it was voluntarily pulled from the market in 2011. (wvxu.org)
  • Roxarsone and other organic arsenicals are anticoccidial agents added to poultry feed. (cdc.gov)
  • in the meat where roxarsone was detected, levels of inorganic arsenic were four times higher than the levels in USDA Organic chicken (in which roxarsone and other arsenicals are prohibited from use). (healthcanal.com)
  • In addition to inorganic arsenic, the researchers were able to identify residual roxarsone in the meat they studied-in the meat where roxarsone was detected, levels of inorganic arsenic were four times higher than the levels in USDA Organic chicken (in which roxarsone and other arsenicals are prohibited from use). (motherearthnews.com)
  • The legislation would ban the use of an arsenical drug called roxarsone, which is commonly added to chicken and poultry feed, from being used as an additive in the U.S. food supply. (livablefutureblog.com)
  • The FDA found that roxarsone use was associated with elevated levels of inorganic arsenic in chicken livers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2013 market basket study conducted in the United States linked the use of roxarsone and other arsenical feed additives to increased levels of inorganic arsenic in chicken breast meat, albeit at concentrations well below danger levels set in federal safety standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study showed that Roxarsone turned immediately into carcinogenic inorganic arsenic in chicken bodies. (island.lk)
  • The sales suspension follows new FDA findings that use of 3-Nitro, which contains the organic arsenic roxarsone, also increases cancer-causing inorganic arsenic in chicken liver. (commondreams.org)
  • Roxarsone, a drug linked to elevated levels of inorganic arsenic in chicken meat, is no longer used in broiler chicken farming, producers say. (wvxu.org)
  • Roxarsone is an organoarsenic compound that has been used in poultry production as a feed additive to increase weight gain and improve feed efficiency, and as a coccidiostat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measure bans roxarsone, a chemical that's used to help chickens grow and fight parasites. (wbaltv.com)
  • Israel's legislation bans roxarsone for use as an additive in the food supply. (livablefutureblog.com)
  • The benzenearsonate, Roxarsone, has been used since 1944 as an antimicrobial, growth-promoting poultry feed additive. (scirp.org)
  • The first approval for 3-Nitro (Roxarsone), NADA 005-414, was on March 21, 1944. (xenophilia.com)
  • The drug, also known as Roxarsone, was approved by the FDA in 1944 and has been used in broiler chickens to control coccidiosis -- a disease that affects the intestinal tracts of animals -- and to speed weight gain, feed efficiency and improve color of the meat. (drugs.com)
  • One popular antibiotic, sold in a brand of poultry feed called Roxarsone, contains arsenic. (mnn.com)
  • Roxarsone, which contains arsenic, a known carcinogen, is also approved for use in swine and turkey production and is known to improve coloration in meat products. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The Poison-Free Poultry Act of 2009 would amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to ban roxarsone, an arsenical antimicrobial drug used to ward off infection in animal production facilities. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Roxarsone is an arsenic-containing antimicrobial drug that is widely used in poultry production and to a lesser extent in swine production to make food animals grow faster, improve their pigmentation, and to combat intestinal parasites. (livablefutureblog.com)
  • Cooking increased iAs and decreased roxarsone concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • Roxarsone is an organoarsenical compound used as food additive in the poultry industry. (springer.com)
  • Because roxarsone is a slightly soluble organic pentavalent compound, it is predicted to be of relatively low toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • We don't use Roxarsone (an arsenical compound found in many conventional feeds) in our feeds and never have. (plainvillefarms.com)
  • The active ingredient in the compound was roxarsone (121197). (cdc.gov)
  • Traces of the arsenic compound Roxarsone, for example, were present in almost all of the samples . (commondreams.org)
  • Roxarsone has been banned in the European Union since 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have good news for people who eat chicken raised in the European Union (as of 1999) or North America (as of 2013): chickens raised in those countries aren't allowed to eat roxarsone. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Cortinas I, Field JA, Kopplin M, Garbarino JR, Gandolofi AJ, Sierra-Alvarez R (2006) Anaerobic biotransformation of roxarsone and related N-substituted phenylarsonic acids. (springer.com)
  • 2006) Anaerobic biotransformation of roxarsone and related N-substituted phenylarsonic acids. (scirp.org)
  • Roxarsone was detected in 20 of 40 conventional samples, 1 of 13 antibiotic-free samples, and none of the 25 organic samples. (nih.gov)
  • Roxarsone was detected in 20 of 40 conventional samples, one of 13 antibiotic-free samples, and none of the 25 organic samples. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Roxarsone degradation and growth kinetics were determined by incubation of the bacterial consortium in the presence of roxarsone at room temperature and under aerobiosis. (springer.com)
  • The metabolic profile of the consortium did not change in the presence of roxarsone, but it showed a greater ability to oxidize amines, suggesting production of functional amines to decrease the stability of the aromatic ring resonance energy, the principal problem associated with aromatic compounds degradation. (springer.com)
  • Roxarsone, Inorganic Arsenic, and Other Arsenic Species in Chicken: A U.S.-Based Market Basket Sample" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • the primary arsenic species extracted with water from dried litter was roxarsone. (usgs.gov)
  • The law would take effect Jan. 1 for hundreds of growers on the Eastern Shore that continue to use Roxarsone as an antibiotic with a side effect that bursts blood vessels, making meat look pink and plump. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In meat samples containing roxarsone, levels of inorganic arsenic were four times higher than levels in organic chicken, and two to three times greater than the safety standard for inorganic arsenic in foods proposed in a 2011 FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine study. (gracelinks.org)
  • The levels of inorganic arsenic discovered in the meat where roxarsone was found were two and three times greater than that level. (healthcanal.com)
  • Another significant finding of the study is that when roxarsone was present in raw meat, cooking decreased the levels of roxarsone and increased the levels of inorganic arsenic. (healthcanal.com)
  • One way to avoid consuming meat produced using arsenical drugs is by purchasing products labeled "USDA Organic," which means free of antimicrobial drugs, including roxarsone. (livablefutureblog.com)
  • As IATP and the Center for Food Safety asserted in a 2009 petition to the FDA calling for a roxarsone ban, there is abundant science both that organic arsenics are directly toxic, but also that they convert into the more worrisome inorganic forms of arsenic in chickens, in chicken meat, and in humans. (commondreams.org)
  • The researchers documented 2.3 ppb - that's parts per billion - of inorganic arsenic (the more toxic type of arsenic) in the meat of chicken that had measurable levels of Roxarsone. (wvxu.org)
  • By comparison, the meat from chicken that had no detectable levels of Roxarsone had 0.8 ppb of inorganic arsenic. (wvxu.org)
  • In a statement issued in response to the news that Roxarsone would be pulled from feed store shelves, it stated, "Chicken is safe to eat" even while admitting arsenic was used in many flocks grown and sold as chicken meat in the United States. (naturalsolutionsradio.com)
  • Roxarsone has the potential risk to contaminate the environment, mainly by the use of poultry industry manure as fertilizer, releasing inorganic arsenic to the soil and water. (springer.com)
  • A bacterial consortium was cultured from a soil sample obtained from a field fertilized with poultry litter containing roxarsone. (springer.com)
  • Asked in committee hearings whether Roxarsone contaminated soil, the researchers said yes, adding that studies showed the practice is unsustainable. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Chapman HD, Johnson ZB (2002) Use of antibiotics and roxarsone in broiler chickens in the USA: analysis for the years 1995 to 2000. (springer.com)
  • However, when water was added to litter at about 50 wt % and the mixture was allowed to compost at 40 o C, the speciation of arsenic shifted from roxarsone to primarily arsenate in about 30 days. (usgs.gov)
  • The scientific understanding at the time of approval was that the organic arsenic in 3-Nitro (Roxarsone) would be excreted as organic arsenic, which is not known to be a carcinogen. (xenophilia.com)
  • In lieu of Roxarsone, which had been used to prevent intestinal parasites, chicken producers have switched to drugs known as ionophores. (wvxu.org)
  • The use of Roxarsone is needed to kill parasites that would otherwise kill the chickens raised in horrid factory farm conditions. (xenophilia.com)
  • There have been several subsequent approvals for 3-Nitro (Roxarsone) for combination use, the most recent being 2009. (xenophilia.com)
  • [ 27 ] The manufacturers of roxarsone and two other arsenical feed additives have requested that the FDA withdraw approval of these products. (medscape.com)
  • As part of its announcement, the FDA said the arsenic levels are low and represent no meaningful risk to those eating Roxarsone-treated chicken-a point predictably emphasized by the National Chicken Council. (civileats.com)
  • Today, folks [chicken producers] are just doing the best they can without" Roxarsone, says Tom Super of the National Chicken Council. (wvxu.org)
  • But, said the court, roxarsone, an organic derivative of arsenic, comprises twenty percent of the ingredients contained in 3-Nitro. (masstortdefense.com)
  • Samples collected from a variety of litter windrows in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Maryland also showed that roxarsone originally present had been converted to arsenate. (usgs.gov)
  • The study was performed on chickens raised prior to the voluntary withdrawal of Roxarsone from the market by its manufacturer in June 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, industry representatives estimated that 88 percent of the roughly nine billion chickens raised for human consumption in the U.S. received roxarsone. (healthcanal.com)
  • Rather, Health Canada said, the suspension of sales is 'a precautionary measure to remove any avoidable exposure to very low levels of inorganic arsenic in chickens treated with roxarsone. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Lead author Keeve Nachman, PhD, said, "The suspension of roxarsone sales is a good thing in the short term, but it isn't a real solution. (healthcanal.com)
  • And my vote is also that roxarsone stays off the market. (plos.org)
  • But the FDA has not taken Roxarsone off the market, nor has it studied the effects of treating animals with other arsenic-based compounds. (courthousenews.com)
  • The chicken eats roxarsone, it gains weight more efficiently, but it also produces a ton of arsenic metabolites and lodges them in its liver. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • The conference served as a great opportunity to publicly introduce the bill and to raise awareness among the general public about roxarsone-related food contamination and environmental impacts," Nachman said after the ceremony. (livablefutureblog.com)
  • A recent study suggested that the role of roxarsone on growth promotion in chicken is through modifying the expression levels of some cell growth and energy metabolism associated genes [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Some flocks used to be given feed that contained a product called Roxarsone, which included safe levels of organic arsenic. (blackdoctor.org)
  • There are multiple sides to the issue," said Kenneth Staver, an associate research scientist at the University of Maryland's Wye Research and Education Center, who studied Roxarsone for the state House Environmental Matters Committee. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Unfortunately, Roxarsone is just one of the animal drugs and antibiotics routinely used in factory-produced chicken. (ewg.org)
  • There are well established and well respected procedures in place at FDA to ensure the safety and efficacy of the use of products such as roxarsone in animal feeds," added Starkey. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • They point out that the arsenic used in Roxarsone and other animal feed additives is organic and not cancer-causing and dispute claims by critics that organic arsenic can transform into the inorganic kind. (baltimoresun.com)