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  • aromatic
  • Thus, the physiologic roles of basolateral transporters of neutral AAs, such as the antiporter LAT2/CD98hc (SLC7A8/SLC3A2), a heterodimer that exports most neutral AAs, and the uniporter TAT1 (SLC16A10), which exports only aromatic AAs, remain unclear. (uzh.ch)
  • Compared with mice lacking only TAT1 or LAT2, dKO LAT2-TAT1 mice lost larger amounts of aromatic and other neutral AAs in their urine due to a tubular reabsorption defect. (uzh.ch)
  • On the other hand, the weakest interaction was attained among the delocalized π electrons from the aromatic parts of the amino acids and lone-pair electrons of the oxygen atom in oxidized graphene. (rsc.org)
  • The protonated imidazole is an organic cation in the cation-π interactions with other aromatic amino acids. (springer.com)
  • System L recognizes branched chain and aromatic amino acids ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • molecules
  • Based on the obtained results, the strongest interactions took place among the negatively polarized oxygen atom of the oxidized graphene and positively polarized parts of the amino acid molecules, i.e. hydrogen atoms of the -NH and -OH parts. (rsc.org)
  • Investigations about the role of solvation in calculations revealed that the zwitterionic conformer of glycine binds more strongly to the graphene surface in the presence of water molecules in comparison to its neutral form by an energy difference of about −4.82 kJ mol −1 . (rsc.org)
  • Amino acids are molecules which contain both a carboxylic acid and an amine group. (wikibooks.org)
  • 4 - 11 However, the roles of these molecules in retinal ischemic injury are unknown. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Here, we focus on the mechanisms by which phosphate has guided prebiotic reactivity through catalysis or buffering effects, to facilitating selective transformations in neutral water. (mdpi.com)
  • These facile and subtle mechanisms for incorporation and exploitation of phosphates to orchestrate selective, robust prebiotic chemistry, coupled with the central and universally conserved roles of phosphates in biochemistry, provide an increasingly clear message that understanding phosphate chemistry will be a key element in elucidating the origins of life on Earth. (mdpi.com)
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • codon
  • Here we review recent literature on the functional effects of codon usage, including bioinformatics approaches aimed at identifying general roles for synonymous codon usage. (nih.gov)
  • concentrations
  • Bile acids are present at high concentrations in breast cysts and in the plasma of postmenopausal women with breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Electrochemical behaviour has been investigated using Tafel plots and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with various concentrations of ILs as electrolyte additives in 4.0 mol·L −1 sulphuric acid. (hindawi.com)
  • ligands
  • Classic competitive ligands, which are amino acid derivatives, bind to the orthosteric binding site as endogenous glutamate. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Another shortcoming of this kind of ligands is that the carboxyl and amino groups make them too polar to penetrate the blood brain barrier. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Although these ligands have had and still have important roles in elucidating physiological and pathophysiological properties of mGluRs, their poor selectivity within group presupposes some knowledge of complexity. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • thus
  • Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as well as structure, but exhibit important differences in ionic coupling. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate exchange rather than net flux. (pnas.org)
  • play
  • Furthermore, the long range dispersion forces were found to play significant roles in the considered systems. (rsc.org)
  • Secondly, we discuss the non-structural roles that phosphates can play in prebiotic chemistry. (mdpi.com)
  • Aminopeptidase N/CD13 has been reported to play important roles in tumor cell invasion ( 6 , 7 ) and tumor angiogenesis ( 8 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • functional
  • ERK1 and ERK2 Map Kinases: Specific Roles or Functional Redundancy? (frontiersin.org)
  • First-principle calculations based on density functional theory were performed to investigate the adsorption properties of amino acids onto graphene surfaces. (rsc.org)
  • While these regions are typically filtered, there is increasing anecdotal evidence of functional roles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the recent two decades, the study of the corrosion in lead-acid batteries or lead alloy batteries has increased, because grid corrosion is a key determinant of the functional properties and life of lead-acid batteries. (hindawi.com)
  • diets
  • Its incidence is epidemiologically linked to high-fat diets ( 21 ), which increase the amounts of bile acids in the body ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • species
  • Iodinated and brominated tyrosine are also amino acids found in species, but are not included in the 20 major amino acids because of their rarity: iodinated tyrosin is only found in thyroid hormones, and brominated tyrosine is only found in coral. (wikibooks.org)
  • disorders
  • As a model for LSDs we are studying the lysosomal free sialic acid storage disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • We are using molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches to better define the normal function of sialin and to determine how loss of sialin function leads to neurodevelopmental defects and neurodegeneration associated with the lysosomal free sialic acid storage disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • Dysfunction of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and DAO activator (DAOA)/G72 genes have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • organisms
  • In response to environmental encounters with acid, these organisms have evolved complex, inducible acid survival strategies. (nih.gov)
  • Continued study of acid survival in these organisms will provide insights regarding stress management and will have a direct impact on our understanding of pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • source
  • Lead-acid batteries as electrical power source are used in different applications such as vehicles, submarines, and emergency systems. (hindawi.com)
  • levels
  • This study aimed to examine whether peripheral DAO and amino acids levels are characteristic of age-related cognitive decline. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • FXR is expressed in nonenterohepatic tissues, including high levels in the kidneys and adrenal gland, which are "nonclassic" bile acid targets ( 1 ), and low levels in the heart, vascular tissue, thymus, ovary, spleen, and testes ( 19 , 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • High levels of the plasma bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) are found in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, whereas CDCA is present at high μmol/L levels in breast cyst fluid ( 23 , 24 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • class
  • Traditional Markov-chains and application-specific regression models are compared using the example of predicting runs of single amino acids, a particularly simple class of biased regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • natural
  • We incorporated the non-natural photoreactive amino acid p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bpa) into the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) surface surrounding the central cleft formed by the Rpb1 and Rpb2 subunits. (ebscohost.com)