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  • Peptide
  • The helper T cell response to a soluble protein requires the processing of the native antigen by an antigen presenting cell (APC) to a peptide containing an antigenic determinant, which is transported to and held on the APC surface, where it is recognized by the specific T cell in the context of the appropriate Ia molecule 1 . (springer.com)
  • Peptide specificity and MHC restriction of staphylococcal nuclease-specific T cell clones, J. Exp. (springer.com)
  • Thy-mocytes displaying TCR with a high avidity for MHC class II-peptide complexes, expressed primarily by thymic bone marrow-derived cells, are subjected to deletion via apoptosis in the process dubbed negative selection. (doctorabel.us)
  • Engagement between the MHC-peptide complex and T cell receptor provides signal 1 . (frontiersin.org)
  • MHC class II loading of high or low affinity peptides directed by Ii/peptide fusion constructs: implications for T cell activation. (ximbio.com)
  • The magnitude of responses elicited with such membrane preparations was very similar to that of PBL cultures stimulated with native antigen-pulsed and fixed intact APC or prefixed intact APC incubated with a peptide fragment of the nominal antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • protein
  • 2 demonstrated that cytolytic T cells specific for influenza virus infected cells recognize peptides of the nucleocapsid protein which is not normally expressed in its native form on the cell surface. (springer.com)
  • E.K. Lakey, E. Margoliash, G. Flouret and S.K. Pierce, Peptides related to the antigenic determinant block T cell recognition of the native protein as processed by antigen-presenting cells, Eur. (springer.com)
  • A. Finnegan, M.A. Smith, J.A. Smith, J. Berzofsky, D.H. Sachs and R.J. Hodes, The T cell repetoire for recognition of a phylogenetically distinct protein antigen. (springer.com)
  • Although the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was originally identified as the protein that mediates the maternal immune transport ( 2 , 3 ), it was soon realized that this receptor is a key player in regulating the transport of IgG within and across cells of diverse origins. (frontiersin.org)
  • IFNg-1b, a cell-signaling protein, plays a key role in the regulation and activation of the immune system. (cancer.gov)
  • Using TCR transgenic cells specific for the malaria circumsporozoite protein, a leading vaccine candidate, we found that sporozoite antigen persists for over 8 weeks after immunization-a remarkable finding since irradiated sporozoites are incapable of replication and do not differentiate beyond early liver stages. (prolekare.cz)
  • In this model OT-II CD4+ T cells, that can recognize only specific epitopes in the OVA protein, are transferred into RAG-/- hosts challenged with CFP-OVA-expressing E. coli. (ucc.ie)
  • The results showed that exogenous protein antigens were actively endocytosed by APC as detected by flow cytometry. (hindawi.com)
  • vivo
  • In preclinical studies, aAPC have demonstrated the ability to expand antigen-specific T cells when injected directly (in vivo) or when used as part of an ex vivo cellular expansion system. (globenewswire.com)
  • responses via cross-presentation, and characterized how different epitopes from LCMV are cross presented in vitro and in vivo. (queensu.ca)
  • In vivo CD4 + and CD8 + T cell-depleting strategies and genetically altered mice that did not express MHC class I or class II antigens were used to study the allorecognition and effector pathways of islet allograft rejection in different strains of mice, including autoimmunity-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. (asnjournals.org)
  • Firstly, reducing the time primed CD8+ T cells were exposed to antigen in vivo severely reduced the final size of the developing memory population. (prolekare.cz)
  • In a recent study, using an in vivo mouse model for genital herpes, we demonstrated an essential role of DCs in Th1 induction following HSV-2 infection in the vaginal mucosa ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Although the TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in the innate recognition of bacterial and fungal pathogens ( 3 ), the role of TLRs in antiviral immunity in vivo is unclear. (rupress.org)
  • However, this situation may not be universal, as one study found that pDCs are the major producers of IFN-α and IFN-β after murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), but not lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), infections in vivo ( 11 ), thereby highlighting a differing cell requirement for type I IFN responses dependent on the type of viral stimulus. (rupress.org)
  • This study identifies ADAM10 as the in vivo CD23 sheddase and an important regulator of B cell development. (rupress.org)
  • donor
  • We also addressed the capacity of diverse LCMV antigens, generated during virus infection, to induce LCMV-specific CTL responses via cross-presentation by employing antigen donor cells (ADCs) that provide sufficient LCMV antigens after virus inactivation with no possible direct antigen presentation. (queensu.ca)
  • Donor T cells are critical for both GVHD and GVL. (grantome.com)
  • While allo-antigen specific na?ve donor T cells cause GVHD, they also contribute to GVL, explaining the tight linkage between the two processes. (grantome.com)
  • This information will thus improve our understanding of the immuno-biology of GVH responses and could lead to the development of innovative therapeutic strategies targeting antigen presentation on host APC subsets to enhance TSA specific donor T cell mediated GVL without aggravating GVHD. (grantome.com)
  • Donor T cells recognize certain proteins in the host as foreign and cause GVHD and GVL. (grantome.com)
  • The immunobiology of allotransplantation is an area of ongoing discovery, from the recipient's conditioning treatment prior to the transplant to the donor cell populations responsible for engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, and graft-versus-tumor effect. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we focus on donor-type immunoregulatory T cells, namely, natural killer T cells (NKT) and regulatory T cells (Treg), and their current and potential roles in tolerance induction after allogeneic HSCT. (hindawi.com)
  • Parallel studies of human bone marrow transplantation for malignancies by Mathe and colleagues focused on attempts to achieve GVT without fatal GVHD, but these were complicated by lack of sustainable engraftment of donor hematopoietic cells. (hindawi.com)
  • GVHD is mediated by an immune attack by the donor effector T cell population within the graft against key target tissues of the recipient or graft-versus-host (GVH) reactivity, whereas graft rejection is mediated dominantly by effector T and NK cells responses of the recipient against the donor graft, termed host-versus-graft (HVG) reactivity [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In 1966, Billingham identified the criteria associated with the development of GVHD as (1) MHC disparity between donor and recipient, (2) immunocompetent cells in the graft, and (3) the ability of the host to accept the graft (relative HVG hyporeactivity) [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, the "Holy Grail" in allotransplantation is to maintain GVT (and antimicrobial/antiviral) activity while facilitating the engraftment of the donor hematopoietic stem cells, and avoiding GVHD mediated by mature T cells within the donor graft. (hindawi.com)
  • innate
  • The classic view of granulocytes as terminally differentiated, short-lived phagocytes is therefore changing to phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous cells that are engaged in cross-talk with other leukocyte populations and provide an additional link between innate and adaptive immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • In case of deficiencies or abnormalities in acquired immunity, like defective function of T- or B-cells and malfunction of innate immunity, like complement deficiencies, major disturbance of host protection may occur. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review will focus on our current understanding of the immunobiology of regulatory cells from both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system as vehicles for treatment and prevention of GVHD (Figure 1 ), using both preclinical and clinical studies in allogeneic BMT. (hindawi.com)
  • maturation
  • Flow cytometry was used to analyze the differentiation and maturation of BMDCs and T cell cytokine production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternatively, germinal center B cells undergo somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation, leading to the selection of high-affinity B cell clones that differentiate into either long-lived PCs or memory B cells ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • recognize
  • Additionally complement has been shown to recognize altered self, a condition that may occur upon injury of host cells for instance during oxygen deprivation. (frontiersin.org)
  • T cells recognize a diverse range of potential antigens through their highly polymorphic T cell receptor (TCR). (pnas.org)
  • induction
  • In addition, they demonstrate that NOD mice, which develop autoimmunity and are known to be resistant to tolerance induction, have an unusually powerful CD4 + cell indirect mechanism that can cause rejection of both islet and cardiac allografts. (asnjournals.org)
  • These results demonstrate that oral intake of areca-derived polyphenols attenuates food allergic responses accompanied with a decreased Th2 immunity and an enhanced induction of functional myeloid-derived suppressor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antigen-presenting B cells: role in induction of peripheral T cell tolerance Raimondi et al. (slideserve.com)
  • Studies were conducted to address further the role(s) of antigen processing and presentation in the induction of immune responses in a phylogenetically lower vertebrate, specifically a teleost, the channel catfish. (hindawi.com)
  • Current data further corroborate our previous findings that steps akin to antigen processing and presentation are clearly important in the induction of immune responses in lower vertebrates like fish, in a manner similar to that seen in mammalian systems. (hindawi.com)
  • vaccine
  • It has been shown that FA extensively modifies vaccine antigens and thus affects immunogenicity profiles, sometimes compromising the protective efficacy of the vaccines or even exacerbating the disease upon infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • inflammation
  • Some animals clearing leukemic cells died of a secondary "wasting disease" consisting of diarrhea, weight loss, skin inflammation, and liver disease. (hindawi.com)
  • This model allows examination of the earliest immunological events leading to disease and chronic inflammation, when the gut inflammation perpetuates but does not depend on a defined antigen. (ucc.ie)
  • targets
  • The AIM Technology enables simultaneous enrichment, activation and expansion of endogenous T cells (non-genetically manipulated) directed at multiple tumor-relevant antigen targets across a broad range of solid and hematologic malignancies. (globenewswire.com)
  • mechanism
  • Elimination of these precursors of autoreactive T cells serves as a critical mechanism of autoimmunity prevention. (doctorabel.us)
  • context
  • Peptides presented by MHC class I are recognized by CD8+ T cells, while peptides generated in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment are presented in the context of MHC class II to CD4+ T cells (Cresswell 1994). (doctorabel.us)
  • mice
  • Finally, we demonstrated that these Tg mice developed efficient immune response against very low dose of antigen, reflecting another important practical benefit of these Tg mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • In BALB/c mice, islet rejection depended on both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • We used T cell-depleting strategies and genetically altered mice that did not express MHC class I or class II antigens. (asnjournals.org)
  • Secondly, fully developed memory cells expanded in previously immunized mice but not when transferred to naïve animals. (prolekare.cz)
  • The phenotype of these type I IFN producing pDCs has been found to differ by species, as they are CD4 + CD11c − in humans ( 8 ) but in mice have been identified as CD11c + CD11b − Gr-1 + B220 + cells ( 4 , 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • To investigate their role in B cell development, we generated B cell-specific ADAM10 knockout mice. (rupress.org)
  • Studies using B cell-deficient (mMT) mice have given rise to contradictory results. (slideserve.com)
  • Mixed BM chimeric mice to define the contribution that B cells make as APC. (slideserve.com)
  • Can generate TCR-Tg mice where B cell compartment is deficient in MHC class II, while other APC are largely normal. (slideserve.com)
  • A subset of T cells known as invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are defined by their expression of a restricted TCR repertoire, consisting of a canonical Vα14-Jα18 or Vα24-Jα18 chain in mice and humans, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • In this model, immunodeficient mice (RAG-/-recipients) are reconstituted with naive CD4+ T cells from healthy wild type hosts. (ucc.ie)
  • GVHD
  • However, T cells specific for the tumor specific-antigens (TSA) expressed exclusively by the leukemia contribute to GVL but not to GVHD. (grantome.com)
  • However the specific cellular signals and the key molecular pathways that are critical for enhancing cross-presentation of TSAs on host CD8+DCs and thus potentially augment GVL without aggravation of allo-antigen driven GVHD are not known. (grantome.com)
  • Therefore, the central premise of our proposal is that it may be possible to separate GVL from GVHD specific responses by targeting antigen presentation pathways in the host CD8+DCs. (grantome.com)
  • Although this patient died from complications of GVHD, no residual leukemia cells were found. (hindawi.com)
  • cytotoxic
  • Paradoxically, T cells are also required for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector function, which are central to GVT activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibition
  • K.L. Rock and B. Benacerraf, Inhibition of antigen-specific T lymphocyte activation by structurally related Ir gene controlled polymers, J. Exp. (springer.com)
  • affinity
  • These results define cholesterol as an essential factor for cross-presentation and suggest that specific modification of antigens to increase their affinity for cholesterol may be utilized to enhance immunity. (ovid.com)
  • initiates
  • However, as described by Kopan and Ilagan (2009) , the identity of the proteinase that initiates Notch signaling in mammalian cells is the subject of great controversy. (rupress.org)
  • optimal
  • In this regard it is known for a long time that for instance animals that are depleted of complement have a strongly reduced ability to mount an optimal acquired immune response to foreign antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together these data show that the optimal development of protective CD8+ T cell immunity against malaria liver stages is dependent upon the prolonged presentation of sporozoite-derived antigen. (prolekare.cz)
  • However, not all data suggests short exposures to antigen are optimal for T cell responses. (prolekare.cz)
  • allogeneic
  • The initial Phase I/II clinical trial will include patients with acute myeloid leukemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes who have relapsed after an allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant. (globenewswire.com)
  • Specific Aim (SA) 1: To determine the cell autonomous role of host CD8+DCs and the signals that promote cross-presentation and enhance GVL after allogeneic BMT. (grantome.com)
  • Targeting
  • NexImmune's lead product candidate, AIM ACT, is a cellular therapy designed to generate T cells targeting multiple tumor antigens associated with several hematologic malignancies. (globenewswire.com)
  • NexImmune's AIM technology generates T cells capable of targeting multiple tumor-relevant antigens, and we believe this approach will enhance overall treatment effectiveness and reduce the likelihood of disease relapse due to target loss. (globenewswire.com)
  • activation
  • E.K. Lakey, L.A. Casten, M.S. Anderson, L. Smolenski, J.A. Smith, E. Margoliash and S.K. Pierce, T. cell activation by processed antigen is equally blocked by I-E and I-A restricted peptides. (springer.com)
  • The so-called "three-signal model" ( 4 ) is usually used to define the APC function required for the activation of T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, we have demonstrated that in response to particulate antigenic lipids iNKT cells are recruited for the assistance of B cell activation, resulting in the enhancement of specific antibody responses. (pnas.org)
  • Regulation of cathepsin G reduces the activation of proinsulin-reactive T cells from type 1 diabetes patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our data suggested the notion that CatG plays a critical role in proinsulin processing and is important in the activation process of diabetogenic T cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • immunization
  • These animals develop higher Ag-specific antibody titers, which is not merely the result of the better IgG protection but primarily due to the increased number of activated Ag-specific B cells, upon immunization on the course of T-dependent immune response ( 8 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 1986
  • In this special issue of Immunogenetics, we take you from Jan Klein's 1986 history chapter entitled "The Story" to the modern-day perspectives of antigen processing and presentation. (springer.com)