• Commercially available HIV-1 RNA assays do not detect HIV-2 viral load. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of the results of five kinds of assays of HCV antibodies and HCV RNA. (annals.org)
  • Discrepancies in viral load (VL) measurements obtained in different plasma collection tubes have underscored the importance of specimen collection and handling in the determination of accurate results in HIV viral load assays. (asm.org)
  • Elevated HIV-1 viral loads in plasma specimens collected and frozen in PPTs and quantified in the standard and ultrasensitive Roche COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor assays ( 2 , 4 , 13 ) have led investigators to believe that it may have an impact on therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients ( 1 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The large differences are due to different blip definitions and viral load assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we present an international collaboration of 4,221 paired blood plasma viral load (pVL) results from four commercial assays, emphasizing the data with low pVL. (uzh.ch)
  • Correlation and concordance between the viral load assays were lower at a low pVL. (uzh.ch)
  • Different RMs are expected to produce different evolutionary and dynamical outcomes in viral quasi-species due to differences in the mutations accumulation rate. (springer.com)
  • Mutations within the 5′-UTR affecting RNA structural elements enabled restriction by or antagonism of Ifit1 in vitro and in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • 3 Except for the NSW03 and NSW01 isolates, viral mutations are located at the stem loop-II (s2m) motif, an extremely conserved RNA element in the 3' untranslated region (Figure 1A). (mja.com.au)
  • The first analysis included 29 patients receiving either monotherapy or combination therapy with the protease inhibitor ritonavir whose plasma HIV RNA levels rebounded from the point of greatest decline with mutations associated with resistance to ritonavir. (ovid.com)
  • Conclusion: In this multiethnic cohort of 488 untreated individuals with CHB, factors associated with serum HBV RNA level were HBeAg status, serum ALT, HBV genotype, and presence of basal core promotor mutations. (eur.nl)
  • Mutations that disrupted the structure of this region, which lies within the region encoding the viral polymerase, were introduced using asymmetric and overlapping PCR. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The rapidity of viral mutation also causes problems in the development of successful vaccines and antiviral drugs, as resistant mutations often appear within weeks or months after the beginning of a treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yield of nucleic acids was evaluated by RT-qPCR and qPCR, and compared with spiked DNA (linearized plasmid DNA, 10 5 copies/sample) and RNA (RNA transcript, 10 6 copies/sample) copy number. (fishersci.com)
  • 4 The minimal change in viral load considered to be statistically significant (2 standard deviations) is a three-fold change (equivalent to a 0.5 log 10 copies/mL change). (nih.gov)
  • With 5 million reads, we capture 96 to 100% of the viral protein coding region of HIV, respiratory syncytial and West Nile viral samples from as little as 100 copies of viral RNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At the threshold of at least 1000 copies/mL, 34 (19%) infants were classified as infected by plasma RNA compared with 35 (20%) by DBS RNA. (ucsf.edu)
  • At the threshold of at least 10,000 copies/mL, 31 (18%) infants were classified as infected by plasma RNA compared with 31 (18%) for DBS RNA. (ucsf.edu)
  • With the exception of one specimen (with RNA in plasma and DNA but not RNA on DBS), there was complete concordance between DBS RNA and DBS DNA at the DBS RNA threshold of at least 1000 copies/mL. (ucsf.edu)
  • Of 36 samples that tested positive by DBS DNA, four (11.1%) had DBS RNA levels of 1000-10,000 copies/mL from patients aged 0, 1, 7, and 15 months. (ucsf.edu)
  • There were also three patients aged 10, 13, and 14 months, negative by DBS DNA, with DBS RNA not detected and plasma RNA levels of 70, less than 40, and 237 copies/mL, respectively. (ucsf.edu)
  • Durability of response was defined as the time from the initiation of therapy to the point at which plasma HIV RNA displayed a sustained increase of at least 0.6 log 10 copies/ml from the nadir value. (ovid.com)
  • The coronavirus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, is known as a positive-strand RNA virus because of the way it stores and makes copies of its genetic material. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Viral blips were defined as a transient viral load between 50 and 500 copies/mL Subjects not suppressed after six months on ART were excluded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Median blip viral load was 76 copies/mL (range 56-138). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This test is FDA approved and can quantitate HIV-1 RNA over the range of 40-10,000,000 copies/mL (1.60 log(10)-7.00 log(10) copies/mL). (uncmedicalcenter.org)
  • The PureLink® Viral RNA/DNA Mini Kit provides a rapid and efficient method to simultaneously purify viral RNA/DNA from fresh or frozen cell-free biological fluids (plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid) and cell culture supernatants. (thermofisher.com)
  • Purifies viral nucleic acids from human and animal samples, including plasma, serum, saliva, and urine, using magnetic bead technology amenable to high-throughput operations. (fishersci.com)
  • The Thermo Scientific MagJET Viral DNA and RNA Kit is designed for fast and efficient purification of viral nucleic acids from various human and animal liquid samples such as plasma, serum, saliva and urine, as well as from nasal, buccal and urogenital swabs and blood. (fishersci.com)
  • Quick recovery of viral DNA/RNA from plasma, serum and other samples. (zymoresearch.com)
  • and chemically stable, which makes the nanoparticles resistant to RNase (an enzyme, which cleaves RNA) digestion in the blood serum. (eurekalert.org)
  • Most of these appear to represent false-positive results because HCV RNA is usually absent from the serum. (annals.org)
  • Viral reactivation was seen in scid mice treated with hyperimmune serum or a low dose of monoclonal antibody to the E2 envelope glycoprotein, but not in mice treated with a high dose of monoclonal antibody to E2. (asm.org)
  • The GRS Viral DNA/RNA Purification Kit provides an efficient and fast method for the purification of high quality viral DNA and RNA from cell-free media (e.g. from serum, body fluids, and the supernatant of viral infected cell cultures). (bioquote.com)
  • For its proper use, it is essential to identify factors influencing serum HBV RNA level. (eur.nl)
  • We explored the association of serum levels of HBV RNA with patient- and virus-associated factors. (eur.nl)
  • For the future use of serum HBV RNA as a clinical marker, it seems mandatory to take these factors into consideration. (eur.nl)
  • Additionally, 5′ppp containing RNAs rich in U residues have been found to act as more potent inducers of RIG-I, indicating that sequence composition might play a role in activation ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Preliminary analyses of the 40 S RNA 5′ terminal sequence of DEN 3 virion RNA indicate that it has the composition of m7GpppAmpXp. (ajtmh.org)
  • In it, you mention: "DAS181, or Fludase, is unique in that it incorporates a sialidase that removes sialic acids from mucosal membranes, thereby preventing viral attachment via the HA glycoprotein. (virology.ws)
  • Viral analysis of biological and environmental samples requires the use of advanced technologies to assure assay effectiveness. (thermofisher.com)
  • We have therefore developed a real-time PCR assay, based on LightCycler technology, to quantify HIV-1 group O RNA in plasma. (nih.gov)
  • We extracted RNA from clinical specimens and detected SARS-CoV-2 by using the Allplex 2019-nCoV Assay kit (Seegene, http://www.seegene.com ). (cdc.gov)
  • Taken together, our data support the formation of the proposed ENE secondary structure in vivo and argue that the specific ENE structure inhibits rapid RNA decay in cis by engaging in a limited set of base-pairing interactions with the polyA tail. (pnas.org)
  • The surface based system monitors real-time binding, whereby specific and unspecific RNA-protein interactions will be distinguished through comparison of relative association rates for each binding interaction. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • We conclude that Tsg101, through selective interactions with its partners including Hrs and Alix, may link receptor sorting and lysosome targeting to the back-fusion process involved in viral capsid release. (ovid.com)
  • Several conserved serine and threonine residues in p19 mediate key interactions with 2'-hydroxyls specifying RNA as the substrate, rather than DNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • This view only shows part of the network of interactions with the ribose sugar 2'-hydroxyls of the RNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • Each 'reading' helix is connected to the structured core of p19 by a short flexible loop and several side-chain interactions this presumably allows some flexibility in the positioning of the RNA end-capping tryptophan residues. (proteopedia.org)
  • The PHASIFY ™ VIRAL product can facilitate greater SARS-CoV-2 RNA yields. (yahoo.com)
  • Nasopharyngeal swab specimens tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all 12 children, and 11 (92%) had positive RNA in their fecal specimens ( Appendix Table 2). (cdc.gov)
  • Utilizing PHASIFY ™ VIRAL RNA extraction can result in 15-30-fold greater amount of viral RNA for standard RT-qPCR analyses,' says Klausner. (yahoo.com)
  • In an attempt to answer that question, researchers at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago measured the amount of viral load in the noses of 145 mildly to moderately ill COVID-19 patients, ranging in age from under 1 month to over 65 years of age. (flutrackers.com)
  • they made very little viral protein, they did not inhibit host cell translation, and they synthesized a significant amount of viral RNA, although with some delay compared with wild type. (caltech.edu)
  • Is the Subject Area "Small interfering RNAs" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • The findings were extended to a group of singly spliced viral mRNAs that produce Env in the following biochemical analyses. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cells can chemically modify RNA to influence protein production. (eurekalert.org)
  • She grows infected cells, extracts total RNA and captures target PAN RNA with oligonucleotide probes. (auburn.edu)
  • She has published one of only two papers that used SHAPE-MaP, a new method that allows researchers to probe the structure of any RNA of interest inside the living cells or within viral particle. (auburn.edu)
  • Computationally designed RNA and RNA-DNA based nanorings presented in this work have multiple advantages in diagnostics and delivery of functional moieties to diseased cells,' Shapiro tells Nanowerk. (nanowerk.com)
  • In order to elucidate the function of NSs, we established a plasmid-based minireplicon system using mammalian cells that express large amounts of T7 RNA polymerase. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that, in mammalian cells, the bunyavirus NSs protein controls the activity of the viral polymerase by a highly conserved mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA ( nut-1 , T1.1) accumulates to unusually high levels (≈2.5 × 10 5 ) in the nucleus of lytically infected human cells ( 21 - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • To evaluate, in HIV-infected patients whose baseline CD4 count is 300 to 750 cells/mm3, whether an antiretroviral treatment regimen based upon clinical evaluation and CD4 counts plus HIV RNA viral load is more effective than a treatment regimen based upon clinical evaluation and CD4 counts without the use of HIV RNA viral load information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is hypothesized that among HIV-infected patients whose baseline CD4 count is in the range of 300 to 750 cells/mm3, those patients who incorporate initial and periodic viral RNA measurements in their therapeutic decisions will have higher CD4 counts after 48 weeks than patients whose therapeutic decisions do not incorporate initial and periodic viral RNA measurements. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Utilizing a biological system of virally infected mammalian cells, the substrate targeted in the study are viral RNA-protein complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • Nonpermissive cells infected with {varphi}X174 gene D amber mutants synthesized some sixfold less viral RNA than permissive cells. (caltech.edu)
  • yet, there are no data that identify viral immunostimulatory RNAs (isRNA) or host RNAs bound to VP35 in cells. (jcvi.org)
  • The existence of these vast quantities of non-coding RNAs in cells implies the significance of these differential RNA species in the regulation of biological processes ( 1 , 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This chapter summarizes what is known about how a single viral RNA molecule can be selectively amplified into thousands of RNA progeny in infected cells. (asmscience.org)
  • RNA was made from these constructs and used to transfect HeLa cells. (caltech.edu)
  • The team adapted a technique that attaches fluorescent chemical probes to RNA in cells. (technewslit.com)
  • To determine whether splicing of these transcripts is regulated by viral factors, the extent of splicing was studied in infected cells and COS-7 cells transiently transfected with plasmids encoding the 2.8 kb RNA of BDV. (columbia.edu)
  • Unspliced RNA was found to be the most abundant RNA species in infected cells, whereas viral transcripts lacking both introns were only found in minute amounts. (columbia.edu)
  • Furthermore, the splicing pattern did not change when the 2.8 kb RNA was expressed in BDV-infected cells. (columbia.edu)
  • Animal cells are programmed to self-destruct when they are under viral attack or damaged in some other way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the RNA nanotechnology pioneered by Guo, the researchers constructed ultrastable X-shaped RNA nanoparticles using re-engineered RNA fragments to carry up to four therapeutic and diagnostic modules. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have addressed these issues, and now it is possible to produce RNA nanoparticles that are highly stable both chemically and thermodynamically in the test tube or in the body with great potential as therapeutic reagents. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using RNA as a therapeutic modality brings to bear an entirely new approach, which not only allows for the construction of uniform scaffolds for attachment of functional entities, but also permits the use of all the different types of functionalities that are inherent in natural RNAs. (nanowerk.com)
  • To assess relative utility of viral load testing in determining therapeutic choice by the surrogate marker of CD4 cell counts after 48 weeks of therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Elevated HIV-1 viral load (VL) observed in specimens frozen in situ in plasma preparation tubes (PPTs) compared to EDTA plasma specimens may affect therapeutic monitoring of HIV-infected patients. (asm.org)
  • This has important implications for our understanding of the fundamental molecular biology of Picornavirales,and opens the door to novel research and therapeutic applications in the field of custom RNA packaging and delivery technologies. (jic.ac.uk)
  • The RD domain of RIG-I is responsible for recognition and binding to its RNA substrates in a 5′-phosphate-dependent manner, whereas the helicase domain has affinity for dsRNA ( 19 - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • The signature features of RIG-I agonists are a 5′-triphosphate group at the end of an RNA molecule longer than at least 19 nt and some dsRNA regions ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, CDC and the Angola Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program conducted an investigation of patients with a history of yellow fever vaccination and symptoms of yellow fever disease whose specimens tested positive for yellow fever viral RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to assess whether such cases could represent vaccine failure or AEFIs. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers also discovered the biological nano-switch that turns on transcription - the process by which RNA self-replicates - and compared the switch's structure in the "off" and "on" states to determine why environmental conditions activate it. (ucla.edu)
  • This activates RNA transcription. (ucla.edu)
  • The energy released from breaking down ATP causes further changes to the shell that activate RNA transcription. (ucla.edu)
  • Based on these results we speculate that splicing of authentic BDV transcripts is tightly linked to transcription by the viral polymerase. (columbia.edu)
  • Notably, the first age-based multiscale mathematical model for HCV kinetics has been developed [ 25 , 40 , 41 ] providing a more comprehensive understanding of viral treatment response kinetics observed in patients treated with IFN, HCV protease inhibitors (telaprevir and danoprevir), or the HCV NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir as well as modes of action of these drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The kinetics of plasma viral load were also examined in seven patients for whom clinical and immunologic follow-up data were available. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed the viral RNA load kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 in various clinical specimens in children with COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • These RNA dimers then allow separate sets of PKR to bind with themselves, also forming dimers, a state where the paired PKR is most effective against a viral onslaught. (innovations-report.com)
  • The length needed for one PKR to bind to RNA is fifteen base pairs," said Philip Bevilacqua, professor of chemistry, Penn State, one of the lead scientists on the project along with James Cole, associate professor, University of Connecticut. (innovations-report.com)
  • To get two PKRs to bind and dimerize, you need an RNA strand that is twice as long. (innovations-report.com)
  • Adding these defects decreases the number of places where PKR can bind to the RNA," Heinicke explained. (innovations-report.com)
  • To demonstrate the combinatorial nature of the scaffolds, the scientists functionalized their nanorings with up to six RNA aptamers (see the top right ring in Figure 1) selected to bind the malachite green (MG) dye and significantly increase its emission, which is otherwise undetectable in aqueous solutions. (nanowerk.com)
  • Previously, we reported that the viral envelope fuses preferentially with the membrane of vesicles present within multivesicular endosomes. (ovid.com)
  • Strikingly, an analysis of host RNAs bound by wild-type, but not mutant, VP35 revealed that select host RNAs are preferentially bound by VP35 in cell culture. (jcvi.org)
  • We show that pathogenic alphaviruses use secondary structural motifs within the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of their RNA to alter Ifit1 binding and function. (sciencemag.org)
  • As such, this knowledge may also influence future strategies for the prevention and treatment of pathogenic viral diseases. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Pre-treatment viral load level is also an important factor in the selection of an initial ARV regimen because several currently approved ARV drugs or regimens have been associated with poorer responses in patients with high baseline viral load (see What to Start ). (nih.gov)
  • The baseline RNA level was the first DBS RNA measurement at 40 days or less and the follow-up level was the second DBS measurement taken between 41 and 80 days. (ucsf.edu)
  • In the first analysis, durability of response was analyzed with respect to baseline HIV RNA, HIV RNA at the nadir, and the drop in HIV RNA from baseline to the nadir. (ovid.com)
  • In the second analysis, time to rebound was examined using Kaplan-Meier analysis, stratifying by either baseline HIV RNA or HIV RNA at the nadir. (ovid.com)
  • In both analyses, the durability of response was not highly associated with either baseline RNA or the magnitude of RNA decline from baseline. (ovid.com)
  • Blips were associated with high baseline viral load and an increased risk of subsequent virological failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most people with declines of more than 1 log 10 had undetectable HBV RNA at baseline. (infohep.org)
  • We provide a Graphical User Interface that applies this method and is useful for simulating viral dynamics during treatment with anti-HCV agents that act against HCV on the molecular level. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this work, we tried to elucidate molecular machinery underlying RNA recognition by RLRs and physiological significance of RLR-mediated signaling. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Molecular Dynamics studies, focusing on the area surrounding the ligation site, have indicated multiple opportunities for recombination between model RNAs. (jbsdonline.com)