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  • Genes
  • IN eukaryotic cells, transcription initiation of genes encoding mRNA involves the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex containing general transcription factors (GTFs) and RNA pol II ( R oeder 1998 ). (genetics.org)
  • peptides
  • Thus, the stage was still an "RNA world", considering chemical existence is not sufficient to "justify" the existence of a substance in a living world (more or less, the peptides can be seen as merely environmental factors, like metal ions, for example). (beds.ac.uk)
  • mutations
  • We have identified mutations affecting components of three different complexes involved in the control of basal transcription: the mediator, TFIIH, and RNA pol II itself. (genetics.org)
  • Mutations in RNA pol II include both overexpression of truncated forms of the two largest subunits (Rpb1 and Rpb2) and reduced levels of these proteins. (genetics.org)
  • proteins
  • We hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small RNAs (sRNA) are delivered by B. tabaci into the phloem, where they may play a role in manipulating host plant defenses. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, I suggest that exosomal secretion of proteins and RNAs may be a fundamental mode of communication within the nervous system, supplementing the known mechanisms of anterograde and retrograde signaling across synapses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The exosomes would then transfer newly synthesized synaptic proteins (such as CAM kinase II alpha) and synaptic RNAs to the presynaptic terminal, where they would contribute to synaptic plasticity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this paper is discuss the potential role of the endosome-derived vesicle known as the secretory exosome as a means of intercellular signaling of proteins and RNAs in the nervous system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The exosome is a relatively well-characterized entity that has discrete mechanisms of formation and secretion, is secreted by diverse cell types, is regulated by physiological conditions, and has been implicated in intercellular transfer of specific signaling proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, a significant study suggested that precursors of RNA, proteins and lipids may have derived by common chemistry [ 8 ] - while the result was inspiring for researchers working in the field of the origin of life, a clear notion concerning the difference between chemical existence and biotic existence, like mentioned here, becomes particularly important. (beds.ac.uk)
  • As a clear consequence of the scenario concerning the RNA world, DNA and proteins (encoded) should have appeared afterwards. (beds.ac.uk)
  • vitro
  • d ) Doped RNA pool for in vitro selection of the second generation of prototype flexizyme. (nih.gov)
  • f ) Doped RNA pool for in vitro selection of dFx, eFx and aFx that recognize aromatic leaving groups. (nih.gov)
  • Although several RNA polymerase ribozymes have been evolved in vitro , the creation of a true replicase remains a great experimental challenge. (springeropen.com)
  • stem
  • Although stem cells hold great promise for disease treatment, it is difficult to study how they renew themselves and produce all of the body's cells, said Dr. Lei Wang, assistant professor and Frederick B. Rentschler Developmental Chair in the institute's Chemical Biology and Proteomics Laboratory. (photonics.com)
  • cellular
  • Recent studies have reported that secretory exosomes (and microvesicles shed by cells) contain a subset of cellular mRNAs and microRNAs as well, which can be transferred to and translated within recipient cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemistry
  • The central question concerning the origin of life has thus become: how did the RNA World emerge from the prebiotic chemistry of the early earth? (springeropen.com)
  • chemical
  • At first glance the alternative, in which RNA replication is driven purely by chemical and physical processes, seems even more challenging, given that so many unsolved problems appear to stand in the way of repeated cycles of non-enzymatic RNA replication. (springeropen.com)
  • World
  • It is now popularly accepted that there was an "RNA world" in early evolution of life. (beds.ac.uk)
  • domain
  • The head module is thought to interact with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA pol II ( L ee and K im 1998 ). (genetics.org)
  • requires
  • Despite recent progress [ 12 , 13 ], the experimental demonstration of RNA-catalyzed RNA copying still requires significant increases in efficiency and accuracy before self-replication can be achieved. (springeropen.com)
  • suggest
  • In this review, I discuss recent findings that suggest that chemically driven RNA replication may not be completely impossible. (springeropen.com)
  • assembly
  • While a complete solution to the problem is not yet in hand, major advances have recently been made in this area, primarily from the Sutherland lab [ 4 - 6 ], such that there is now considerable optimism that a robust pathway to the assembly of ribonucleotides and RNA oligomers will eventually be found. (springeropen.com)