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  • lincRNAs
  • By using strand-specific RNA sequencing, researchers from the Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology profiled the expression patterns of lincRNAs in Arabidopsis, rice and maize, and identified 47, 611 and 398 TE-associated lincRNAs (TE-lincRNAs), respectively. (lncrnablog.com)
  • For trait-associated lincRNAs, they also investigated synteny and conservation relative to mouse, expression patterns in five cardiometabolic-relevant tissues, and allele-specific expression in RNA sequencing data for adipose tissue and leukocytes. (lncrnablog.com)
  • genes
  • Our previous study has proven that the poly(ester amine) carrier is less than 150 nm and offers effective delivery potential due to a biodegradable complex formation with genes with little toxicity and enhanced gene transfer efficiency (10). (redorbit.com)
  • Suppression of nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat ( NB -LRR ) disease resistance genes by small RNAs is particularly unusual because of a high level of redundancy. (plantcell.org)
  • A modification pattern involving alternating 2′- O -methyl RNA bases was developed that generally retains high potency when tested in different sites in different genes, evades activation of the innate immune system, and improves stability in serum. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Overprinted genes are particularly common features of the genomic organization of viruses, likely to greatly increase the number of potential expressible genes from a small set of viral genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • RISC
  • The passenger strand is degraded and the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • This experiment showed that RISC was not responsible for generating the observable small nucleotide fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Argonautes, the most well-studied family of nucleic-acid binding proteins, are RNase H-like enzymes that carry out the catalytic functions of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • In nature complementarity is the base principle of DNA replication and transcription as it is a property shared between two DNA or RNA sequences, such that when they are aligned antiparallel to each other, the nucleotide bases at each position in the sequences will be complementary, much like looking in the mirror and seeing the reverse of things. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Some studies attribute this observation to selective pressure toward small genome sizes mediated by the physical constraints of packaging the genome in a viral capsid, particularly one of icosahedral geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The inhibition occurred at two points in the viral life cycle, after fusion and before reverse transcription and during transcription of viral RNA from integrated provirus. (jimmunol.org)
  • During the viral life cycle, viral RNA is present in the cytoplasm of cells after fusion and before reverse transcription, which presents a target that when acted on can inhibit infection before proviral integration. (jimmunol.org)
  • Complementarity is also utilized in DNA transcription, which generates an RNA strand from a DNA template. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sense strand is, generally, the transcribed sequence of DNA or the RNA that was generated in transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • A complementary strand of DNA or RNA may be constructed based on nucleobase complementarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-complementarity refers to the fact that a sequence of DNA or RNA may fold back on itself, creating a double-strand like structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • In addition to these domains, hsDicer contains four other functional domains: two RNaseIII domains and two double stranded RNA binding domains (DUF283 and dsRBD). (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • In vivo studies included serial MRI of NOD-SCID mice transplanted with MN-small interfering (si)Caspase-3-labeled human islets under the left kidney capsule and MN-treated islets under the right kidney capsule. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • specific
  • Gene expression is highly tissue specific, therefore with traditional RNA capture methods one must be cautious in the interpretation of gene expression patterns, as they often reflect expression of a heterogeneous mix of cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • complementarity
  • In biotechnology, the principle of base pair complementarity allows the generation of DNA hybrids between RNA and DNA, and opens the door to modern tools such as cDNA libraries. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most complementarity is seen between two separate strings of DNA or RNA, it is also possible for a sequence to have internal complementarity resulting in the sequence binding to itself in a folded configuration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complementarity is achieved by distinct interactions between nucleobases: adenine, thymine (uracil in RNA), guanine and cytosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The study shows that a noncoding antisense form of RNA - an RNA that does not encode a protein- controls the expression of β-secretase-1 (BACE1), an enzyme critical to Alzheimer's disease progression. (scripps.edu)
  • Dicer was given its name in 2001 by Emily Bernstein, a graduate student in Greg Hannon's lab at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, who sought to discover the enzyme responsible for generating small RNA fragments from double-stranded RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dicer's ability to generate ~22 nucleotide RNA fragments was discovered by separating it from the RISC enzyme complex after initiating the RNAi pathway with dsRNA transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Subsequent experiments testing RNase III family enzymes abilities to create RNA fragments narrowed the search to Drosophila CG4792, now named Dicer. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • We have previously demonstrated that NF-Y and Sp1 interact with the human telomerase RNA (hTR) promoter and play a central role in its regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the number of marine mammals is small compared to those found on land, their roles in various ecosystems are large, especially concerning the maintenance of marine ecosystems, through processes including the regulation of prey populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Similarly, malnutrition of both macronutrients (such as protein and energy) and micronutrients (such as iron, zinc, and vitamins) increase susceptibility to HIV infections by interfering with the immune system and through other biological mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal domain of A3G renders catalytic activity, several NMR and crystal structures explain the substrate specificity and catalytic activity APOBEC3G exerts innate antiretroviral immune activity against retroviruses, most notably HIV, by interfering with proper replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, avoidance behavior and psychological stress due to use of a shock apparatus can interfere with quantitation of running endurance, as well as confound measurements of postexercise serum hormone and cytokine levels. (jove.com)
  • messenger
  • The new study's findings show that when BACE1-AS (pronounced base) is exposed to stress, it stabilizes BACE1 messenger RNA, increasing expression of BACE1 and leading to higher levels of amyloid-β 1-42, the peptide believed to be the primary cause of Alzheimer's disease. (scripps.edu)
  • target
  • This noncoding antisense RNA, termed BACE1-AS, could be an attractive target for potential new diagnostic as well as therapeutic approaches. (scripps.edu)
  • form
  • JUPITER, FL, June 26, 2008-Scientists from Scripps Florida, a division of The Scripps Research Institute, have shown for the first time that a specialized form of RNA is directly linked to increased levels of amyloid plaque in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. (scripps.edu)
  • response
  • This normal adaptive response to the microgravity environment is, for the most part, of little consequence within the space vehicle per se, but may become a liability resulting in increased risk of an inability or decreased efficiency in crewmember performance of physically demanding tasks during extravehicular activity (EVA) or abrupt transitions to environments of increased gravity (return to Earth, landing on the surface of another planetary body). (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • This virus has a both a large and a small genome section, with four lineages identified to date: Josiah (Sierra Leone), GA391 (Nigeria), LP (Nigeria) and strain AV. The Lassa virus commonly spreads to humans from other animals, specifically a rodent known as a natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis). (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • CD1 is catalytically inactive, but very important for binding to DNA and RNA and is key to defining the 5'->3' processivity of APOBEC3G deamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • What makes it so dangerous is that even initial small changes in BACE1 activity may snowball to a long-lasting and chronic process of amyloid-β 1-42 accumulation in the brain. (scripps.edu)
  • Progesterone inhibits apoptosis in immortalized granulosa cells, and this activity requires PGRMC1 and its binding partner, PAIR-BP1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA-binding protein-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Viroporins are small and usually hydrophobic multifunctional viralproteins that modify cellular membranes, thereby facilitating virus release from infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • JACUSA: site-specific identification of RNA editing events from replicate sequencing data. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • cells
  • Designed for dramatically improved transfection efficiency, Invitrogen Lipofectamine Stem Transfection Reagent offers a simple, robust and reproducible method for delivering DNA, RNA and RNP such as Cas9/gRNA complexes into a wide range of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells, neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (Figure 2) . (thermofisher.com)
  • Structure
  • Structure and Function in RNA Processing and. (hhmi.org)
  • Some of these homologous sets were inspected for conserved structure, resulting in 10 RNA-like motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • size
  • Additionally, their small size allows them to be easily incorporated into biomolecules through cellular metabolic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • Viroporins are usually small - under 100 or 120 amino acid residues - and contain at least one region capable of folding into an amphipathic transmembrane helix. (wikipedia.org)