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  • genes
  • A recent study found only one-fifth of transcription across the human genome is associated with protein-coding genes, indicating at least four times more long non-coding than coding RNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcripts
  • Long non-coding RNAs (long ncRNAs, lncRNA) are defined as transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that are not translated into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FANTOM3 project identified ~35,000 non-coding transcripts from ~10,000 distinct loci that bear many signatures of mRNAs, including 5' capping, splicing, and poly-adenylation, but have little or no open reading frame (ORF). (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Y RNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III and range in size from 83 to 112 nucleotides. (genecards.org)
  • Despite being an RNA polymerase II transcript, the 3' end of MALAT1 is produced not by canonical cleavage/polyadenylation but instead by recognition and cleavage of the tRNA-like structure by RNase P. Mature MALAT1 thus lacks a poly(A) tail yet is expressed at a level higher than many protein-coding genes in vivo. (upenn.edu)
  • Besides MALAT1, only a handful of long RNA polymerase II transcripts (e.g. histone mRNAs) have been clearly shown to be processed at their 3' ends via non-canonical mechanisms. (upenn.edu)
  • Genes
  • The bioinformatic approach has allowed for the prediction of 295 putative sRNAs genes in the genome of H. mediterranei , 88 of which have been verified by means of RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). (mdpi.com)
  • 29 ] injected zebrafish embryos with sense and antisense C9orf72 repeat RNA or synthetic genes encoding individual DPR proteins. (springer.com)
  • signal recognit
  • Here we addressed the molecular functions of these 7SL RNA fragments and found that some of them functioned as dominant-negative regulators of the full-length 7SL RNA, interfering with signal recognition particle (SRP) complex formation. (nih.gov)
  • microRNA
  • Two of these circular RNAs clearly function as microRNA sponges, but it is largely unknown why all the other circular RNAs are produced or how the splicing machinery selects certain regions of the genome (and not others) to circularize. (upenn.edu)
  • regulate gene expression
  • In addition, we are developing approaches to identify additional triple helices that form across the transcriptome, thereby revealing new paradigms for how RNA structures regulate gene expression. (upenn.edu)
  • miRNA
  • Our results indicate that the sub-cellular distribution is important for miRNA function, and that the characterization of the small RNAs sub-cellular localizome may contribute to cancer research and diagnosis. (hindawi.com)
  • abundant
  • Their use as disease biomarkers has been limited by technical challenges in their isolation caused by abundant RNA- and DNA-degrading enzymes in biofluids. (pnas.org)
  • For example, an abundant class of circular RNAs has recently been identified in human and mouse cells. (upenn.edu)
  • Mechanisms
  • Our goal is to characterize the mechanisms by which noncoding RNAs are generated, regulated, and function, thereby revealing novel fundamental insights into RNA biology and developing new methods to treat diseases. (upenn.edu)
  • This result challenges the common paradigm that long poly(A) tails are required for efficient protein synthesis and suggests that non-polyadenylated RNAs may produce functional peptides in vivo via mechanisms that are likely independent of poly(A) binding protein. (upenn.edu)
  • We aim to identify and characterize additional RNAs whose 3' ends are generated via unexpected mechanisms, thereby revealing novel paradigms for how RNAs are processed and, most importantly, new classes of noncoding RNAs with important biological functions. (upenn.edu)
  • clostridium
  • Moreover, SRP RNA of another spore-forming bacteria, clostridium perfringens, contains three domains, and can restore the growth and sporulation of B.subtilis conditional mutant, suggesting that both domains I and II are required for sporulation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, we showed that Dicer knockdown enhanced SRP-mediated protein targeting and that transfection of a mixture of the 7SL RNA fragments partially restored this effect. (nih.gov)
  • expression
  • Our studies indicate that the gene encoding BC200 RNA was created at least 35-55 million years ago and its presence, mode of expression, and association with protein(s) as an RNP are under selective pressure. (springer.com)
  • Transfection of these 7SL RNA fragments inhibited the expression of cell surface glycoproteins, the targeting of a reporter protein to the endoplasmic reticulum, and the secretion of secreted alkaline phosphatase. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of RNA-Seq data has also revealed differences in the expression pattern of 16 sRNAs according to the nitrogen source. (mdpi.com)
  • This is because many of these poorly characterized RNAs exhibit cell type-specific expression or are associated with human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. (upenn.edu)
  • Strikingly, repeat RNA injection did not result in significant DPR expression via RAN-translation in zebrafish embryos. (springer.com)
  • bacteria
  • Small RNAs have been studied in detail in domains Bacteria and Eukarya but, in the case of the domain Archaea, the knowledge is scarce and the physiological function of these small RNAs (sRNAs) is still uncertain. (mdpi.com)
  • function
  • Subsequently, the RNA had been recruited or exapted into a function of the nervous system. (springer.com)
  • The 7SL RNA fragment mixture partially restores SRP function in Dicer-knockdown cells. (nih.gov)
  • To further investigate whether enhanced SRP function in Dicer knockdown cells is due to reduction of Dicer-processed 7SL RNAs, we transfected Dicer-knockdown cells with a mixture of the 7SL RNA fragments, including 7SL(1-96), 7SL(1-212), and 7SL(97-299). (nih.gov)
  • vivo
  • Nevertheless, it is becoming increasingly clear that non-polyadenylated RNAs are much more common and play significantly greater regulatory roles in vivo than previously appreciated. (upenn.edu)
  • important
  • In this experiment, Lee and colleagues observed that the RNA transcribed from the lin-4 locus did not encode a protein but instead silenced the gene encoding Lin-14, an important protein in larval development ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • cells
  • The Dicer-knockdown cells (K/D) were then transfected with the 7SL RNA fragment mixture (7SL mix) or LacZ RNA, and SEAP activity was determined 48 h after the second transfection. (nih.gov)
  • B) HEK293T cells that stably expressed ECFP-ER were pretreated with siDCR for 48 h, and then co-transfected with 7SL mix or LacZ RNA and siDCR. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, transfection of Dicer-knockdown cells with LacZ RNA had no detectable effect (Fig. 4A, 4B, and data not shown). (nih.gov)
  • human
  • The family of non-coding regulatory RNAs (ncRNAs) has been expanding its members in view of the fact that large-scale studies of the human transcriptome revealed that a significant fraction of the genome is transcribed into these ncRNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • We now know that most of the human genome is transcribed, yielding a complex repertoire of RNAs that includes tens of thousands of individual noncoding RNAs with little or no protein-coding capacity. (upenn.edu)