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  • protein
  • Recombination studies using a novel tombusvirus three-component system revealed that mutations in RPR motif of p33 replicase protein resulted in an altered viral RNA recombination rate. (uky.edu)
  • putative
  • Identified DI RNA recombinants were mostly imprecise, with recombination sites clustered around a replication enchancer and an additional putative cis-acting element that might facilitate the template switching events by the tombusvirus replicase. (uky.edu)
  • genome
  • The coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of about 32 kb. (asm.org)
  • tertiary
  • These discoveries provide fundamental insight into how RNA forms complex folded tertiary structures which confer enzymatic-like function in ribozymes, whereas DNA retains structural motifs in order to facilitate function such as translation of sequence. (rsc.org)
  • hepatitis C vir
  • Regulation of the hepatitis C virus RNA replicase by endogenous lipid peroxidation. (nih.gov)
  • We show that multiple hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes are exquisitely sensitive to oxidative membrane damage, a property distinguishing them from other pathogenic RNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • molecules
  • We use large parallel temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics ensembles to sample the full conformational landscape of these hairpin molecules so that we can identify the stable structures formed by the hairpin sequence. (rsc.org)
  • Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for either non-coding RNA (such as microRNA ), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition of viral double-strand RNA (dsRNA) molecules by intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or retinoic acid inducible gene I-like receptors (RLRs) is a central event which entails the early steps of the immune response elicited during viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • amino acid
  • In the context of an RNA world merging with a nascent amino acid one, such a game's equilibrium is alluded to by the genetic code, which is nearly optimal in terms of information transfer, but is also near-universal and nearly immutable. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • helicase
  • Here we expressed polyhistidine-tagged nsP2 in Escherichia coli, purified it by metal-affinity chromatography, and used it in RNA helicase assays. (nih.gov)
  • RNA helicase CI of plum pox potyvirus was used as a positive control. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first demonstration of RNA helicase activity within the large alphavirus superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • assemble
  • Sczepanski and Joyce, 2014 ) were shown to be able to assemble one of their own strands from cognate constituent RNA segments. (elifesciences.org)
  • genes
  • The replicase genes of both families consist of two large open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1a and ORF1b, of which the latter is expressed upon ribosomal frameshifting ( 12 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • hydrogen
  • RNA is capable of forming twice as many hydrogen bonds than DNA which results in a higher melting temperature. (rsc.org)
  • Hydrogen bonds of the RNA-DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesized RNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • When RNA is copied, one strand acts as a template, and a replicase ribozyme would accurately guide which letters are added to the strand under construction. (elifesciences.org)
  • Until now, the best approaches have assumed that a replicase would add building blocks formed of a single letter one by one to grow a new strand. (elifesciences.org)
  • structures
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) have remarkably similar chemical structures, but despite this, they play significantly different roles in modern biology. (rsc.org)
  • Our simulations show RNA adopts a narrower distribution of folded structures compared to DNA at room temperature, which forms both hairpins and many unfolded conformations. (rsc.org)
  • fold
  • In this apparent paradox, a ribozyme needs to fold to copy RNA, but when folded, is itself copied poorly. (elifesciences.org)
  • cells
  • a) Transmission electron microscopic images of the membranous web in Huh-7.5 cells electroporated with H77S.3 or HJ3-5 RNA and treated with DMSO, SKI (1 μM), VE (1 μM), LA (50 μM), or CuOH (10 μM). (nih.gov)
  • left) Huh-7.5 cells electroporated with H77S.3/GLuc or HJ3-5/GLuc RNA were cultured for 7 d, then treated with DMSO, 10 μM PSI-6130, 1 μM VE or both PSI-6130 and VE. (nih.gov)
  • membrane
  • Two main functions of the ORF1a-encoded replicase part are proteolytic processing (see below) and membrane association ( 60 , 81 ). (asm.org)
  • molecular
  • We see that local chemical differences lead to emergent molecular properties such as increased persistence length in RNA that is weakly temperature dependant. (rsc.org)
  • world
  • Such a framework suggests that cellularity may have emerged to encourage coordination between RNA species and sheds light on other aspects of RNA world biochemistry yet to be fully understood. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Finally, we conclude with a discussion of several implications of our model to the evolution in the RNA world. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • as a critical test of the 'RNA world' hypothesis ( Gilbert, 1986 ). (elifesciences.org)