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  • Molecular Biology
  • With the advent of modern molecular biology, breeder's options have been substantially broadened, allowing the purposeful transfer of genetic information from either related or diverse organisms into different plant species, thus specifically improving agricultural performance. (plantphysiol.org)
  • More recently, the department has been home to: John C. Gray Emeritus Professor of Plant Molecular Biology since 2011 Thomas ap Rees Professor of Botany F. Ian Woodward Lecturer and Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge before being appointed Professor of Plant Ecology at the University of Sheffield Anon (2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Instead of chemical synthesis, scientists used a bacteria-eating virus called a bacteriophage to help generate the RNA. (tomonews.com)
  • citation needed] The level of RNA synthesis has been shown to be affected by the cis-acting properties of certain elements on the RNA (such as RNA1 and 2), which include core promoter sequences which regulate the site of initiation for the complementary RNA strand synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide
  • Precursor transcripts from TAS loci are polyadenylated and converted to double-stranded RNA, and are then processed into 21-nucleotide-long RNA duplexes with overhangs. (wikipedia.org)
  • RDR6 then converts the transcript into a double strand RNA fragment which then gets processed by DCL4 to generate the 21-nt siRNA with 2 nucleotide 3' overhangs that target complementary mRNAs in trans. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hammerhead ribozymes (the so-called HH9 and HH10) occur in the introns of a few specific genes and point to a preserved biological role during pre-mRNA biosynthesis The hammerhead ribozyme carries out a very simple chemical reaction that results in the breakage of the substrate strand of RNA, specifically at C17, the cleavage-site nucleotide. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing C1 antisense RNA were obtained and shown to resist infection by TYLCV. (deepdyve.com)
  • Rice plants are susceptible to infection starting at the seedling age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection causes the most damage during seedling stage to maximum tillering stage because during this time interval, the plants are at a higher risk of death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innate immune systems provide immediate defense against infection, and are found in all classes of plant and animal life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a plant has become infected with the virus the host will never be free from infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydomonas
  • His research led to the discovery of microRNAs, a special type of silencing RNAs, in Chlamydomonas , which were previously only known to associate with multicellular organisms. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • small
  • This is of great benefit when isolating RNA and DNA from precious, difficult to obtain or very small samples. (norgenbiotek.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Small interfering RNAs" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • In his second project in the Baulcombe lab, he demonstrated that systemic silencing is mediated by mobile small RNAs, and provided the first evidence in any organism that mobile small RNAs direct epigenetic changes in distant tissues. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • The small domain of the rice SRP RNA was reduced considerably. (deepdyve.com)
  • The purified total RNA can be eluted in a small volume of RNase free water. (stratec.com)
  • Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Bromovirus, family Bromoviridae, in the alphavirus-like superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is spread primarily by Laodelphax striatellus, a small planthopper that feeds and damages rice plants by sap-sucking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hairpin ribozyme is a small section of RNA that can act as a ribozyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolate
  • Optional on-column DNase and RNase treatments provide flexibility to isolate DNA-free RNA or RNA-free DNA respectively. (norgenbiotek.com)
  • Current research is also working on learning more about the nature of DMBs/DMPs, as they are difficult to isolate from infected plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Most of the members of the box C/D family function in directing site-specific 2'-O-methylation of substrate RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • spin
  • Ethanol is added to provide appropriate binding conditions, then the sample is applied to a Spin Filter where the total RNA binds to the membrane and contaminants are efficiently washed away by repeated washing steps. (stratec.com)
  • Total RNA was isolated from 100 mg of fresh leaves or young shoots of orange, mandarin and grapefruit plants using the InviTrap Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit. (stratec.com)
  • Isolation of total RNA from 90 mg Brassica oleracea and Nicotiana tabacum leaves using the InviTrap Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit. (stratec.com)
  • Total RNA was isolated using the InviTrap Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit from Nicotiana tabacum. (stratec.com)
  • hammerhead ribozyme
  • Similar reports confirmed and extended these observations, unveiling the hammerhead ribozyme as a ubiquitous catalytic RNA in all life kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • MicroRNAs from common plant crops such as rice and cabbage can be found in the blood and tissues of humans and other plant-eating mammals, according to a study published today in Cell Research. (xenophilia.com)
  • The presence of peculiar metabolites in a variety of plant tissues or fungi, however, may lead to solidification of the lysate, resulting in a non-processible slurry. (clontech.com)
  • siRNA
  • Ta-siRNAs are classified as siRNA because they arise from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • complementary
  • Like other siRNAs, the ta-siRNAs are incorporated into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), where they guide the complex to cleave the target mRNAs in the middle of a single complementary site and repress translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • rice
  • The plant microRNAs with the highest concentrations were MIR156a and MIR168a, both of which are known to be enriched in rice and cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, and broccoli. (xenophilia.com)
  • The lowland rice plants in Japan (japonica-type) are easily afflicted by RSV, however, upland japonica-type,indica-type, and Javanese varieties are resistant genetically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chugoku 31 and St No1 have been used to breed different varieties of RSV resistant rice plants in Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1950s, Japanese rice farmers have adopted the practice of planting rice early in the season. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to being present in A. thaliana, evidence of ta-siRNAs has also been found in the moss Physcomitrella patens, maize, Oryza sativa (rice), and other plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • This observation illustrates the potential for a novel type of long distance signalling mechanism in plants. (hutton.ac.uk)