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  • protein
  • El Ouaamari A, Baroukh N, Martens GA, Lebrun P, Pipeleers D, van Obberghen E (2008) miR-375 targets 3′-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 and regulates glucose-induced biological responses in pancreatic beta-cells. (springer.com)
  • mechanisms
  • It is now clear that the biogenesis and function of miRNAs are related to the molecular mechanisms of various clinical diseases, and that they can potentially regulate every aspect of cellular activity, including differentiation and development, metabolism, proliferation, apoptotic cell death, viral infection and tumorgenesis. (springer.com)
  • binding protein
  • These interactions are essential to regulate the phosphorylation status, and thus the activity, of the double-stranded RNA binding protein and DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1) cofactor HYPONASTIC LEAVES1 (HYL1). (pnas.org)
  • In a first step, DCL1, aided by cofactors including the C2H2-zinc finger protein SERRATE (SE), the nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), the double-stranded RNA-binding protein HYPONASTIC LEAVES1 (HYL1), and the HYL1 phosphatase C-TERMINAL DOMAIN PHOSPHATASE-LIKE1 (CPL1), removes the two single-stranded RNA tails of the pri-miRNAs to form a largely double-stranded miRNA precursor (premiRNA) ( 2 ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The pre-miRNA can then be exported from the nucleus by the ran-GTP-dependent double strand (ds) RNA binding protein exportin-5. (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin complex-associated protein 1 (FRAP1) and regulators and effectors of mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes in ovine uteri and conceptuses. (nih.gov)
  • Our results demonstrate that P311 is a novel RNA-binding protein that by interacting with TGF-?s 5'UTRs and eIF3b stimulates the translation of TGF-?1, 2 and 3. (jove.com)
  • The RNA-binding protein HuR is highly expressed in the gut mucosa and modulates the stability and translation of target mRNAs, but its exact biological function in the intestinal epithelium remains unclear. (jove.com)
  • Long non-cod
  • Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis. (bioscirep.org)
  • Recent advances in the field of RNA research have provided compelling evidence implicating microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA molecules in many diverse and substantial biological processes, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and modulation of protein activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Given the larger and growing focus on targeting RNAs for disease therapeutics, what we do know about the intrinsic biology of these small RNAs (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) makes them potentially attractive targets for pharmacologic manipulation and prognosis markers. (mdpi.com)
  • degradation
  • Two major hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), regulate insect growth and development according to their precisely coordinated titres, which are controlled by both biosynthesis and degradation pathways. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) is the primary JH-specific degradation enzyme that plays a key role in regulating JH titers, along with JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and JH diol kinase (JHDK). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • tumor
  • Aberrant expression of miRNAs is often seen in cancer ( 12 ), where specific miRNAs function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes and modulate many aspects of carcinogenesis ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • MiR-21 probably promotes the invasion and metastasis of tumor by downregulating the expression of Pdcd4, a 64 kDa protein inhibiting tumor progression [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor molecule. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This work has showed that a microRNA expression ratio can distinguish between nondiseased tissue and tumor tissue with great accuracy in the context of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, an important public health concern worldwide. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expressions of tumor necrosis factor-converting enzyme and ErbB3 in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • A reduced miR-126 expression and an elevated Crk protein expression, alone or in combination, statistically correlated with aggressive clinicopathological characteristics, such as larger tumor size, deeper local invasion, more lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM stage, and poorer prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • biogenesis
  • Here, we describe REGULATOR OF CBF GENE EXPRESSION 3 (RCF3) as a tissue-specific regulator of miRNA biogenesis in plants. (pnas.org)
  • An early indication of their involvement in this process was provided by experiments in mice with a conditional deletion of Dicer, a key enzyme in microRNA biogenesis, in the T cell lineage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Du T, Zamore PD (2005) microPrimer: the biogenesis and function of microRNA. (springer.com)
  • Axtell MJ, Westholm JO, Lai EC (2011) Vive la différence: biogenesis and evolution of microRNAs in plants and animals. (springer.com)
  • biological processes
  • Emerging evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs play a major role in various biological processes, including normal development and disease progression. (bioscirep.org)
  • Long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to regulate important biological processes that support normal cellular functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • cleavage
  • Non-coding microRNAs (miRNA) which regulate mRNA cleavage and inhibit encoded protein translation exhibit temporal or tissue-specific expression patterns and they play an important role in development timing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prior to that time, RNA subserved the functions necessary for life currently associated with DNA (organismal memory) and protein (enzymatic cleavage, regulation of transcription, and many others). (frontiersin.org)
  • Most students today are still taught the central dogma of molecular biology, namely that DNA encodes RNA transcripts that are transcribed from the genome and translated into protein after cleavage and migration from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where the ribosome utilizes the messenger RNA (mRNA) strand as a specific template to produce protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • regulation
  • Objective- MicroRNA plays important roles in vascular biology, but the regulation of endothelial-specific microRNA is not well characterized. (ahajournals.org)
  • 27,28 We have also shown that miR-126 plays a role in vascular inflammation through the regulation of the adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). (ahajournals.org)
  • Regulation of recombination activating gene (RAG)-1 and RAG-2 expression is one key process that is mediated by PI3K to ensure developmental progression and selection. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vitro , H19 up-regulation promoted proliferation, migration, tube formation and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression in HUVECs, and it was found to down-regulate microRNA-29c (miR-29c) expression. (bioscirep.org)
  • There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. (nih.gov)
  • MicroRNA profiling in two independent cohorts of animals validated the up-regulation of 6 microRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, miR-21, miR-29a, miR-34a and miR-505) in NASH mice, which was designated as the circulating microRNA signature for NASH. (biomedcentral.com)
  • miRNAs have emerged as major players in the complex networks of gene regulation, and cancer miRNA expression studies have evidenced a direct involvement of miRNAs in cancer progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ncRNA
  • An in-depth review of published data in combination with unpublished observations from our work in this field has led to support the latter interpretation, based on a strong association of patterns of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcription with diagnosis and prognosis in cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • repression
  • In cultured neurons, we found that the HIV coat protein gp120 increased the transcriptional expression of BACE1 through repression of PPAR? (jove.com)
  • encodes
  • This gene encodes the insulin receptor substrate 2, a cytoplasmic signaling molecule that mediates effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and other cytokines by acting as a molecular adaptor between diverse receptor tyrosine kinases and downstream effectors. (nih.gov)
  • piRNAs
  • Non-coding RNAs are a class of RNA molecules without protein-coding potential that includes mainly short non-coding RNAs (snoRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), piRNAs etc.) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). (bioscirep.org)
  • Moreover, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), in Drosophila as in mammals, are derived from heterochromatin domains containing mostly transposable elements and degenerate transposons, and are involved in transposon silencing. (prolekare.cz)
  • Novel
  • CDC25A plays a novel role in regulating the malignant behavior of glioma stem cells as a part of Linc00152/miR-103a-3p/FEZF1/CDC25A axis. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • DNA damage response pathways are composed of sensors that sense damaged DNA, mediators or transducers that amplify signals, and effectors that determine the fate of cells by modulating gene expression or inducing cell-cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis or senescence ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we analyzed miRNA and gene expression profiles among samples from 3 hES cell lines (H9, I6 and BG01v), differentiated embryoid bodies (EB) derived from H9 cells at different time points, and 5 adult cell types including Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMVEC), Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC), Umbilical Artery Smooth Muscle Cells (UASMC), Normal Human Astrocytes (NHA), and Lung Fibroblasts (LFB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) is highly expressed in endothelial cells, and it regulates angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Some evidence suggests that signals from cell surface receptors influence the expression of miRNAs in CD8+ T cells, and may have consequent effects on cell phenotype and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Total RNA from these cells was subjected to microarray analysis and real-time PCR for miRNA expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We find that miR-146a is up-regulated in naïve CD8+ T cells exposed to IL-2 or IL-15, even in the absence of an activating T cell receptor stimulus, but not when IL-7 is also present. (biomedcentral.com)
  • miR-146a expression correlates with a memory phenotype in both ex vivo and in vitro cultured cells although in our hands overexpression of miR-146a was not sufficient alone to drive a full memory phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study was performed to analyze the association between microRNA‑21 and cisplatin resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) SKOV3 and SKOV3/DDP cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Prior to transfection, higher expression levels of miRNA‑21 were observed in SKOV3/DDP cells compared with SKOV3 cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Furthermore, PTEN mRNA expression levels in SKOV3 cells transfected with miRNA‑21 mimics was significantly lower compared with negative control cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Recently we showed that a c-Myc/miR17-92/PTEN axis regulates PI3K activity for positive and negative selection of immature B cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we show that the c-Myc/miR17-92/PTEN axis tunes PI3K activity to control the expression of RAGs in proB cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • When PI3K signals are too low, such as in CD19-deficient (CD19KO) B cells or when antigen receptor is ablated, continues RAG expression results in ongoing rearrangements ( 9 , 14 , 19 - 21 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, H19 can enhance the angiogenetic capability of mesenchymal stem cells by binding miR-199a and up-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) [ 15 ], which is a known contributing factor in CNV. (bioscirep.org)
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 mRNA Expression in Urinary Sediment Cells as a Diagnostic Marker of Nephropathy in Diabetic Patients. (nih.gov)
  • FSH stimulates IRS-2 expression in human granulosa cells through cAMP/SP1, an inoperative FSH action in PCOS patients. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of the RAN GTPase to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm parallels its function as a regulator of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNAs and proteins in interphase cells (Izaurralde et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • [ 12 ] miR-27a has been identified as an oncogenic microRNA and, specifically, is highly expressed in breast cancer cells. (mirbase.org)
  • [ 13 ] Antisense RNA directed against miR-27a has been shown to decrease the percentage of cells in S phase whilst also increasing those in the G2-M phase. (mirbase.org)
  • physiological
  • Background Physiological track and trigger systems (PTTSs) regulate the monitoring of patients vital signs and facilitate the detection and treatment of deteriorating patients. (nuigalway.ie)