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  • expression
  • Instead, their preservation across diverse amniotes, their apparent conservation in exon structure, and similarities in their pattern of brain expression during embryonic and early postnatal stages together indicate that these are functional RNA molecules, of which some have roles in vertebrate brain development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We studied the expression of a human U3 snRNA gene by injecting 5' deletion mutants into frog oocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • tRNA
  • While transcription-associated mutagenesis (TAM) has been demonstrated for protein-coding genes, its implications in shaping genome structure at transfer RNA (tRNA) loci in metazoans have not been fully appreciated. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, evolutionary analyses provide strong evidence that tRNA genes, but not their flanking sequences, experience strong purifying selection acting against this elevated mutation rate. (pnas.org)
  • We also find a strong correlation between tRNA expression levels and the mutation rates in their immediate flanking regions, suggesting a simple method for estimating individual tRNA gene activity. (pnas.org)
  • Collectively, this study illuminates the extreme competing forces in tRNA gene evolution and indicates that mutations at tRNA loci contribute disproportionately to mutational load and have unexplored fitness consequences in human populations. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, tRNA molecules are critical for virtually all cellular processes, and the genes encoding tRNA molecules have been highly conserved over evolutionary time ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Despite their importance to the cell, there has been little study of evolutionary conservation or pathogenic mutations in cytosolic tRNA genes ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • structure
  • These small RNAs are predicted to fold into a conserved secondary structure containing three stem structures. (genecards.org)
  • known
  • most, however, are known or predicted to serve as guide RNAs in ribose methylation of rRNA. (genecards.org)