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  • molecules
  • The new list of editing sites could therefore help thousands of researchers studying the RNA molecules that are transcribed from DNA, the so-called "transcriptome," by providing reliable information about the thousands of editing changes that can occur. (eurekalert.org)
  • Most recently, scientists have discovered an extensive family of small molecules called microRNAs, or miRNAs, that appear to target and inactivate particular messenger RNAs. (eurekalert.org)
  • We found that about half of all miRNA precursor molecules are subject to editing. (eurekalert.org)
  • Morpholinos do not trigger the degradation of their target RNA molecules, unlike many antisense structural types (e.g., phosphorothioates, siRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical fractionation experiments showed that radioactive amino acids were rapidly incorporated into small RNA molecules that remained soluble under conditions where larger RNA-containing particles would precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These molecules were termed soluble (sRNA) and were later renamed transfer RNA (tRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, perturbed RNA editing has been strongly implicated in the diseases ALS and Acardi-Gutieres disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the secondary structure of the RNA is predicted, around the editing site, to be highly conserved in mice and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • chloroplasts
  • Our study uncovers a role for GUN1 in the regulation of RNA-editing efficiency in damaged chloroplasts and suggests that MORF2 is involved in retrograde signaling. (pnas.org)
  • regulation
  • In addition to increasing our knowledge of the regulation of plant organellar RNA editing under stress conditions, this research uncovers a possible link between retrograde signaling and plastid RNA editing. (pnas.org)
  • This regulation is also present in mice suggesting conservation of editing regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also ADAR1 knock out mice show increase in apoptosis which indicates editing may be involved in regulation of the cellular process. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • RNA editing occurs in the cell nucleus and cytosol, as well as within mitochondria and plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • eight editing events occur in mitochondria of the moss Funaria hygrometrica, whereas over 1,700 editing events occur in the lycophytes Isoetes engelmanii. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that a good deal of those in Arabidopsis interact (often essentially) with mitochondria and other organelles and that they are possibly involved in RNA editing. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • The frequency of AZIN1 editing increased during HCC progression and was correlated with liver cirrhosis, tumor recurrence, and poor prognosis, suggesting that this recoding event may promote HCC pathogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the physiological role of editing has yet to be determined, suggestions have been made that editing may play a role in the pathogenesis of Wilms tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • However, it turns out that the bases in the RNA can be changed dynamically on the fly in a fine-tuning process called RNA editing . (icr.org)
  • Mutation experiment in the region near the 6-base pair duplex have shown that the specific bases in this region were also essential for editing to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Until now, the best studied cases of RNA editing in animals have been in mammals and flies, and is thought to occur at a fairly low level. (icr.org)
  • Illustrates types of reactions that can occur on RNA thus facilitating parallels with other types of RNA processing. (oup.com)
  • However many trans proteins are required for this editing to occur and research continues to look at which proteins are needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • posttranscriptional
  • RNA encoding the B subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR-B) undergoes a posttranscriptional modification in which a genomically encoded adenosine is represented as a guanosine in the GluR-B complementary DNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • Nishikura
  • Finally, inosines in RNA can change the base-pairing propensity of an RNA and therefore alter their folding and change their signature for RNA-binding proteins ( Nishikura, 1992 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • squid
  • In squid, RNA editing is so pervasive that the central dogma should be modified to include this process," Rosenthal says. (mbl.edu)
  • 5 However, a new study has just been reported in squid, where the majority of proteins that were studied were affected by RNA editing. (icr.org)
  • However, the level of squid RNA editing complexity was truly astounding and had never been seen at this level in any other creature. (icr.org)
  • The editing is highly conserved having been observed in squid, fruit fly, mouse, and rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis of proteins
  • The concept of messenger RNA emerged during the late 1950s, and is associated with Crick's description of his "Central Dogma of Molecular Biology", which asserted that DNA led to the formation of RNA, which in turn led to the synthesis of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • RNA editing was thought to be sparingly used, based on a limited number of studies in mammals and flies. (mbl.edu)
  • The best-documented cases of RNA editing in animals have been in mammals, flies, octopuses, and squids. (icr.org)
  • Surprisingly, it was discovered that the RNA editing patterns in the corals resembled those found in mammals. (icr.org)
  • So how was a dynamic phenomenon like RNA editing as complex as that found in mammals also present at the supposed beginning of animal evolution in corals? (icr.org)