• These proteins are associated with pre-mRNAs in the nucleus and appear to influence pre-mRNA processing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism and transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on these and other results, we suggest that one function of general mRNA binding proteins in the cytoplasm is to promote ribosome binding by a 5' end, cap-mediated mechanism, and prevent spurious initiations at aberrant translation start sites. (nih.gov)
  • Then, once in the cytoplasm, the protein composition of the RNP particles determines whether the mature mRNA is transported along the dendrites or the axon of a neuron to the synapses, how efficiently it is translated, and how stable it is. (nih.gov)
  • Before this information can be relayed to the cytoplasm, the nascent RNA undergoes extensive post-transcriptional processing before arriving at its final destination in cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Bowser and colleagues observed that while the protein appears to be predominantly nuclear, some collects in the cytoplasm. (alzforum.org)
  • In neural cell lines, MSI2 protein, as well as its homologue MSI1, is exclusively located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of the proteins bound to a pre-mRNA molecule serves as a signal that the pre-mRNA is not yet fully processed and therefore not ready for export to the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rat hippocampal neurons, Pur-alpha is found in the cytoplasm together with mRNA transcripts, in a complex including non-coding RNAs, Pur-beta, fragile X mental retardation proteins and microtubule-associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The STAU gene product has been shown to be present in the cytoplasm in association with the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), implicating this protein in the transport of mRNA via the microtubule network to the RER, the site of translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Importinβ-RanGTP and Importinα-CAS-RanGTP complex diffuses back to the cytoplasm where GTPs are hydrolyzed to GDP leading to the release of Importinβ and Importinα which become available for a new NLS-protein import round. (wikipedia.org)
  • HuR also determines the specificity of neocortical polysomes by defining their combinatorial composition of ribosomal proteins and initiation and elongation factors. (nih.gov)
  • The protein belongs to the L22E family of ribosomal proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In culex mosquitos, it was one of several ribosomal proteins which were overexpressed in strains resistant to the insecticide deltamethrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several regions of the mRNA molecule are not translated into protein including the 5' cap, 5' untranslated region, 3' untranslated region, and the poly(A) tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes include the Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, which convert specific adenosine residues to inosine in an mRNA molecule by hydrolytic deamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phosphate groups have a negative charge each, making RNA a charged molecule (polyanion). (wikipedia.org)
  • A second consequence of the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group is that in conformationally flexible regions of an RNA molecule (that is, not involved in formation of a double helix), it can chemically attack the adjacent phosphodiester bond to cleave the backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stoichiometry of the minimal complex has been experimentally difficult to determine, but has been determined by biochemical analysis, single-molecule experiments, and X-ray crystallography to be a heterotrimer of two DGCR8 proteins to one Drosha. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 5' end is the part of the RNA molecule that is transcribed first, and the 3' end is transcribed last. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, upon binding to XPO5, the 3' overhang is flipped downwards away from the rest of the pre-miRNA molecule into an "open" conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • But those IREs have a different effect: When the IRE-BP binds to these sites, the binding not only allows for translation but also stabilizes the mRNA molecule so it can stay intact for longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuronal RNA-binding proteins in health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • These data confirm that cHuD protein is involved in regulating neuronal differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • The Hu family of proteins was identified as target antigens in a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (the Hu syndrome) consisting of a diverse set of neuronal degenerations associated with small-cell lung cancer. (jneurosci.org)
  • Musashi2 is an RNA-binding protein expressed in neuronal progenitor cells, including stem cells, and both normal and leukemic blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We therefore decided to examine whether the endogenous ELAV-like proteins are required for neuronal differentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Additionally, defects in RNA splicing have emerged as a common theme in many neurodegenerative disorders, highlighting the importance of RNA processing in maintaining neuronal circuitry. (mdpi.com)
  • The observation that ELAVL3 is one of several Hu antigens (neuronal-specific RNA-binding proteins) recognized by the anti-Hu serum antibody present in sera from patients with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis and sensory neuronopathy (PEM/PSN) suggests it has a role in neurogenesis. (mcw.edu)
  • RNA-binding protein required for the microtubule-dependent transport of neuronal RNA from the cell body to the dendrite. (uniprot.org)
  • Subsequently, FUS has also emerged as a significant disease protein in a subgroup of frontotemporal lobar dementias (FTLDs), previously characterized by immunoreactivity of the neuronal inclusions for ubiquitin, but not for TDP-43 or tau with a proportion of the inclusions also containing a-internexin in a further subgroup known as neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID). (wikipedia.org)
  • During neuronal differentiation, miR-124 reduces PTBP1 levels, leading to the accumulation of correctly spliced PTBP2 mRNA and a dramatic increase in PTBP2 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • More direct RBP target site information is obtained by combining in vivo UV crosslinking with immunoprecipitation followed by the isolation of crosslinked RNA segments and cDNA sequencing (CLIP). (nih.gov)
  • The isolated RNA is converted into a cDNA library and deep sequenced using Solexa technology. (nih.gov)
  • After ligating RNA linkers to the RNA 5' ends, cDNA is synthesized via RT-PCR. (wikipedia.org)