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  • Sanitation
  • Today, water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) measures remain critically important to global public health, especially among children in lower income countries, who are at greatest risk from enteric infections and their associated symptoms, complications and sequelae. (bmj.com)
  • pathogen
  • This study found exposure to soil as the critical pathway of pathogen risk in wastewater farmers, and that this risk exceeded recommended health targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Site-specific pathogen monitoring of source waters was identified as an important factor for the accurate estimation of risk. (diva-portal.org)
  • Alternatively, determining the relative infectivity of persistent pathogen subpopulations and the rates of phenotypic conversion will help ascertain how much disease risk is associated with the long tails of biphasic decay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Key areas of research include rapid methods for monitoring pathogen indicators, risk assessment tools, source tracking microorganisms, and indicators in inland, tropical, and subtropical waters. (werf.org)
  • reuse
  • The LR value in the secondary treatment was virus type and unit process dependent, which raised the importance for accumulating the data of virus LR values applicable to the multiple-barrier system, which is a global concept of microbial risk management in wastewater reclamation and reuse. (iwaponline.com)
  • protozoa
  • The dose-response functions that are currently used in risk assessment studies for protozoa stem from clinical trials where adult healthy volunteers have been exposed to known amounts of well characterized micro-organisms and followed to ascertain the development of infection (faecal excretion, seroconversion). (biomedcentral.com)
  • quantify
  • The aim of this study was to quantify probabilistically the environmental risks of ENMs producing species sensitivity distributions that were then compared to probability distributions of predicted environmental concentrations. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Dose Response
  • The Odds Ratio for one unit of dose [OR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.21, 2.55)] showed a very good consistency with the risk assessment estimate computed after the literature dose-response, provided application of a 20 % abatement factor to the cysts counts that were measured in the epidemiological study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • irrigation
  • Results The annual diarrhea risk caused by exposure to biogas effluent through irrigation activities ranged from 17.4 to 21.1% (E. coli O157:H7), 1.0 to 2.3% (G. lamblia), and 0.2 to 0.5% (C. parvum), while those caused through unblocking drains connected to biogas effluent tanks were 22.0% (E. coli), 0.7% (G. lamblia), and 0.5% (C. parvum). (repec.org)
  • The results showed that although irrigation water was highly contaminated (5.6 Log E. coli /100 ml), exposure to farm soil (2.3 Log E. coli /g) was found to be the key risk pathway due to soil-to-mouth events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • effluent
  • Conclusions Further measures are needed to reduce the risk by either improving the microbial quality of biogas effluent or by ensuring the use of personal protective measures when exposed to biogas wastewater. (repec.org)
  • Management
  • This paper focuses on the forecasting risk analysis in supply chains with intermittent demand, which is typical for the inventory management of the 'slow-moving items', such as service parts or high-priced capital goods. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site‐specific risk assessment. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The development of a thorough and goal-oriented sustainability program, one that integrates climate change impacts into risk management and takes into account the key role of private and public stakeholders, is critical to successful planning. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A Construction Management-at-Risk (CM-at-Risk) delivery method was selected to enhance the construction process, provide flexibility during delivery and focus on achieving schedule restrictions. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The most important aspects of integrated risk management are not the science and the tools of risk assessment, but rather the structuring of political decision-making and the initiating of a policy process based on the risk concept. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Integrated risk management at the local government level was introduced in the town of Ventspils in Latvia. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This three-day event will bring together nearly 300 researchers and experts in risk assessment and management from different countries around the world: France, Germany, Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, South Korea, United States, Canada and Singapore, as well as representatives of European institutions such as the European Commission, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (anses.fr)
  • populations
  • Preliminary screening level assessments suggest risk to be low - but the public and decision-makers are concerned and would like the matter investigated more thoroughly, especially with regards to mixture effects, chronic long-term effects and sensitive sub-populations. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Although continued research is needed, existing evidence from the last 150 years supports extending life-saving WSH measures to at-risk populations worldwide. (bmj.com)
  • reduction
  • These dynamical insights can in turn help to develop effective environmental monitoring plans and to optimize risk-reduction interventions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • robust
  • Accurate, quantitative information and robust data sets to support the development of appropriate criteria are paramount. (werf.org)
  • evaluate
  • We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. (mdpi.com)
  • sought
  • However, what's commonly overlooked or discounted by many outside the investment community is what's most important and highly sought after from those within it: a low-risk investment with steady and predictable cash flows for 20 to 30 years. (environmental-expert.com)