• congenital heart d
  • A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of congenital heart disease may be genetic, environmental, or a combination of both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the known causes of congenital heart disease are sporadic genetic changes, either focal mutations or deletion or addition of segments of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small chromosomal abnormalities also frequently lead to congenital heart disease, and examples include microdeletion of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11, DiGeorge syndrome), the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q21), the short arm of chromosome 8 (8p23) and many other, less recurrent regions of the genome, as shown by high resolution genome-wide screening (Array comparative genomic hybridization). (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • Congenital heart defects are associated with an increased incidence of some other symptoms, together being called the VACTERL association: V - Vertebral anomalies A - Anal atresia C - Cardiovascular anomalies T - Tracheoesophageal fistula E - Esophageal atresia R - Renal (Kidney) and/or radial anomalies L - Limb defects Ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common congenital heart defects seen in the VACTERL association. (wikipedia.org)
  • murmur
  • Some children have no signs while others may exhibit shortness of breath, cyanosis, fainting, heart murmur, under-development of limbs and muscles, poor feeding or growth, or respiratory infections. (wikipedia.org)