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  • Cytosol
  • Some ribosomes occur freely in the cytosol whereas others are attached to the nuclear membrane or to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) giving the latter a rough appearance, hence, the name rough ER or rER. (biology-online.org)
  • nascent
  • Features in the nascent peptide that underlie these distinct behaviors were revealed by analysis of the position on each mRNA at which elongating ribosomes first become attached to the membrane. (pnas.org)
  • The transition from soluble to membrane-attached ribosomes occurs shortly after the first transmembrane segment in the nascent peptide has emerged from the ribosome. (pnas.org)
  • In ribosome display, this link is accomplished during in vitro translation by stabilizing the complex consisting of the ribosome, the mRNA and the nascent, correctly folded polypeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosome-nascent chain complex (RNC) refers to the collection of molecules that constitute a ribosome attached to the polypeptide (protein) that it is synthesising. (wikipedia.org)
  • internal
  • On episode #97 of the podcast This Week in Virology , Vincent visited Peter Sarnow and Bert Semler during a trip to California, and spoke with them about their work on internal ribosome entry, and the requirement for a cellular microRNA for hepatitis C virus replication. (virology.ws)
  • Escherichia
  • In the bacterium Escherichia coli (a prokaryote ), ribosomes may number as many as 15,000, constituting as much as one-quarter of the cell's total mass. (britannica.com)
  • nucleus
  • Because the ribosomes are the protein manufacturers of a cell, the size of the nucleolus can take up as much as 25 percent of the volume of the nucleus in cells that require large amounts of protein. (reference.com)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Mitoribosomes, like cytoplasmic ribosomes, consist of two subunits - large (mtLSU) and small (mt-SSU). (wikipedia.org)
  • TDP with cytoplasmic and ribosome-attached SecA. (pnas.org)
  • C ) Growth of isogenic strains expressing either cytoplasmic (Cyt) or ribosome-attached (Rib) TEV protease. (pnas.org)
  • A and B ) Detection of biotinylated AP-PSBT ( A ) and MalF274-PSBT ( B ). Cultures of cells expressing cytoplasmic TEV protease (Cyt) or ribosome attached TEV protease (Rib) were grown with or without 100 ng/ml aTc (to induce TEV protease). (pnas.org)
  • cellular
  • The ribosome is a highly complex cellular machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosome biogenesis is a very tightly regulated process, and it is closely linked to other cellular activities like growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The program filters the relevant information out of certain sequencing data to determine whether one of the cellular protein factories - ribosomes - is actually active on the RNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • tRNA
  • So, this spacer sequence stays attached to the peptidyl tRNA and occupies the ribosomal tunnel, and thus allows the protein of interest to protrude out of the ribosome and fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the tRNA-mimicry, RRF binds to ribosomes quite differently from the way tRNA does. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ramakrishnan's work reveals for the first time the exact four parts the ribosome uses to make sure that the three base pairs on a tRNA (an anticodon) match up properly with three on an mRNA (a codon). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA, YhdL) also known as peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, is a protein that plays a role in rescuing of stalled ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientist
  • The term "ribosome" was proposed by scientist Richard B. Roberts in the end of 1950s: During the course of the symposium a semantic difficulty became apparent. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • The average ribosome of E. coli , the best-characterized example, measures about 200 angstroms (about 20 nm) in diameter. (britannica.com)
  • affinity
  • Prior to its development, efforts to measure translation in vivo included microarray analysis on the RNA isolated from polysomes, as well as translational profiling through the affinity purification of epitope tagged ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mimics
  • The synthesis process developed by Jewett and Church -- termed "integrated synthesis, assembly and translation" (iSAT) technology -- mimics nature by enabling ribosome synthesis, assembly and function in a single reaction and in the same compartment. (redorbit.com)
  • known
  • The ribosomes and associated molecules are also known as the translational apparatus . (wikipedia.org)
  • It produces a "global snapshot" of all the ribosomes active in a cell at a particular moment, known as a translatome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a variety of regulatory mechanisms are known to affect translation ( 9 ), the ribosome itself is not generally considered to be a regulatory element. (pnas.org)