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  • mRNA
  • Furthermore, we use our internal standard for the quantification of modified nucleosides in mouse tissue messenger RNA (mRNA), where we find different modification profiles in liver and brain tissue. (mdpi.com)
  • Each molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) is a transcribed copy of a gene that is used by a cell for synthesizing a polypeptide chain. (libretexts.org)
  • Pre-mRNA Modifications DNA Pre-mRNA RNA-coding sequence Promoter Exon Intron Exon Intron Exon Cap 5' UTR 3' UTR Exon Intron Exon Intron Exon 5' UTR Transcription by RNA polymerase II. (docplayer.net)
  • Translation also involves specific RNA molecules called transfer RNA ( t-RNA ) which can bind to three basepair codons on a messenger RNA (mRNA) and also carry the appropriate amino acid encoded by the codon. (uwlax.edu)
  • translation
  • Nucleoside modifications are interesting due to their already known roles in translation fidelity, enzyme recognition, disease progression, and RNA stability. (mdpi.com)
  • Genome translation yields two multidomain replicase polyproteins, named pp1a and pp1ab, with the latter being a C-terminally extended version of the former due to a ribosomal frameshift mechanism ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • genome
  • The family of non-coding regulatory RNAs (ncRNAs) has been expanding its members in view of the fact that large-scale studies of the human transcriptome revealed that a significant fraction of the genome is transcribed into these ncRNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • PRRSV contains a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome (∼15 kb) that carries nine open reading frames (ORFs). (asm.org)
  • By applying a comparative genomics-based approach to genome and metagenome sequences from bacteria and archaea, we identified 104 candidate structured RNAs and inferred putative functions for many of these. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This method was applied to all available bacterial and archaeal genome sequences, as well as metagenome (that is, environmental) sequences, and identified 104 candidate RNA motifs described in this report. (biomedcentral.com)
  • eukaryotes
  • They could represent the most primitive small RNA pathways from which the well-known canonical RNA silencing pathways reported in higher eukaryotes evolved. (mdpi.com)
  • miRNAs
  • In addition to these key players, many other RNA species have been identified such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs) or even enzymatic RNAs like RNase P [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • With the advent of new and improved high-throughput sequencing technologies in the last few years, a growing number of novel classes of small RNA, other than miRNAs or siRNA, has emerged, which appear as new actors in gene expression regulation. (mdpi.com)
  • The best-studied members of this family are microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-related RNAs (piRNAs), which share members of the cell machinery for RNA interference (RNAi) gene silencing, with some exceptions. (mdpi.com)
  • polymerases
  • In this article, we have made use of RPOTp and RPOTmp T-DNA insertion mutants to answer the question of whether both plastid-located phage-type RNA polymerases have overlapping or specific functions in plastid transcription. (plantphysiol.org)
  • codons
  • codons), which is then transcribed into the messenger RNA sequence AUG GUG. (bmj.com)
  • The genetic code is used to translate three base codons in RNA or DNA (recall that U=T in RNA and DNA respectively) into amino acids (given in their three letter and one letter codes). (uwlax.edu)
  • binds
  • Twelve candidate metabolite-binding RNAs were identified, three of which were validated, including one reported herein that binds the coenzyme S -adenosylmethionine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • bacteria
  • Another RNA motif may control gene expression from 3'-untranslated regions of mRNAs, which is unusual for bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work greatly expands the variety of highly structured noncoding RNAs known to exist in bacteria and archaea and provides a starting point for biochemical and genetic studies needed to validate their biologic functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Organism
  • The DNA and RNA codon system is almost completely universal, in that almost every organism uses the same codon to code for the same amino acid . (everything2.com)
  • transcription
  • The resulting mature nsps direct viral RNA synthesis, presumably after forming a replication-transcription complex (RTC) that is associated with endoplasmic reticulum-derived paired membranes and double-membrane vesicles ( 10 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Enzyme and completed RNA transcript release from DNA template Organization of a Gene Transcription: Initiation! (docplayer.net)
  • Transcription unit Portion of gene that is copied into RNA! (docplayer.net)
  • Using the transcription-regulatory network, sRNA targets tend to be under multiple regulation (higher indegree, p-val = 0.013) and the targets usually are important to the transfer of regulatory signals (higher betweenness, p-val = 0.012). (biomedcentral.com)
  • As was found for the protein-protein interaction network, the targets that are regulated by the same sRNA also tend to be closely knit within the transcription-regulatory network (larger density, p-val = 0.036), and inward interactions between them are greater than the outward interactions (higher in-degree ratio, p-val = 0.023). (biomedcentral.com)
  • novel
  • Although most dual RNA-seq approaches applied in bacterial infections have been exploratory, some of them have unraveled novel mechanisms of host-pathogen interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • motifs
  • They reported that the three RNA 2'- O -methyltransferases have three conserved motifs, termed motifs 1, 2 and 3 ( Figure 3 ) [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • small
  • PRRSV is a small, enveloped RNA virus belonging to the genus Arterivirus in the family Arteriviridae of the order Nidovirales ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • A subclass of non-coding RNAs, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), has been found to play important regulatory roles in gene expression in prokaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanisms
  • Although the lack of pseudouridine in RNAs contributes to translational and splicing defects and is implicated in one rare human disease, dyskeratosis congenita, the mechanisms remain obscure. (miami.edu)
  • nucleotide
  • Each of the 64 different nucleotide triplets in DNA that, when transcribed into RNA , are then translated into an aminoacid in a protein. (bmj.com)
  • found
  • Post-transcriptional RNA modifications have been found to be present in a wide variety of organisms and in different types of RNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Many noncoding RNAs that likely act in trans are also revealed, and several of the noncoding RNA candidates are found mostly or exclusively in metagenome DNA sequences. (biomedcentral.com)