Loading...
  • mRNA
  • Furthermore, we use our internal standard for the quantification of modified nucleosides in mouse tissue messenger RNA (mRNA), where we find different modification profiles in liver and brain tissue. (mdpi.com)
  • Each molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) is a transcribed copy of a gene that is used by a cell for synthesizing a polypeptide chain. (libretexts.org)
  • Pre-mRNA Modifications DNA Pre-mRNA RNA-coding sequence Promoter Exon Intron Exon Intron Exon Cap 5' UTR 3' UTR Exon Intron Exon Intron Exon 5' UTR Transcription by RNA polymerase II. (docplayer.net)
  • Translation also involves specific RNA molecules called transfer RNA ( t-RNA ) which can bind to three basepair codons on a messenger RNA (mRNA) and also carry the appropriate amino acid encoded by the codon. (uwlax.edu)
  • codons
  • codons), which is then transcribed into the messenger RNA sequence AUG GUG. (bmj.com)
  • The genetic code is used to translate three base codons in RNA or DNA (recall that U=T in RNA and DNA respectively) into amino acids (given in their three letter and one letter codes). (uwlax.edu)
  • RNA editing can convert codons for hydrophilic to hydrophobic amino acids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We suggest that RNA editing may have conferring evolutionary advantage by acting as a mechanism to reduce susceptibility to DNA damage by allowing the increase in GC content in DNA while maintaining RNA codons essential to encode residues required for protein folding and activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • translation
  • Nucleoside modifications are interesting due to their already known roles in translation fidelity, enzyme recognition, disease progression, and RNA stability. (mdpi.com)
  • Genome translation yields two multidomain replicase polyproteins, named pp1a and pp1ab, with the latter being a C-terminally extended version of the former due to a ribosomal frameshift mechanism ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • polymerases
  • In this article, we have made use of RPOTp and RPOTmp T-DNA insertion mutants to answer the question of whether both plastid-located phage-type RNA polymerases have overlapping or specific functions in plastid transcription. (plantphysiol.org)
  • transcription
  • The resulting mature nsps direct viral RNA synthesis, presumably after forming a replication-transcription complex (RTC) that is associated with endoplasmic reticulum-derived paired membranes and double-membrane vesicles ( 10 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Enzyme and completed RNA transcript release from DNA template Organization of a Gene Transcription: Initiation! (docplayer.net)
  • Transcription unit Portion of gene that is copied into RNA! (docplayer.net)
  • Using the transcription-regulatory network, sRNA targets tend to be under multiple regulation (higher indegree, p-val = 0.013) and the targets usually are important to the transfer of regulatory signals (higher betweenness, p-val = 0.012). (biomedcentral.com)
  • As was found for the protein-protein interaction network, the targets that are regulated by the same sRNA also tend to be closely knit within the transcription-regulatory network (larger density, p-val = 0.036), and inward interactions between them are greater than the outward interactions (higher in-degree ratio, p-val = 0.023). (biomedcentral.com)
  • sequence
  • A codon is a sequence of three bases in DNA or RNA . (everything2.com)
  • Earlier analysis [ 15 ] of the location of RNA targets within transcripts did not detect any rules to explain why particular residues within a protein sequence were affected by codon changes while other residues were not altered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • binds
  • Twelve candidate metabolite-binding RNAs were identified, three of which were validated, including one reported herein that binds the coenzyme S -adenosylmethionine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • bacteria
  • Another RNA motif may control gene expression from 3'-untranslated regions of mRNAs, which is unusual for bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work greatly expands the variety of highly structured noncoding RNAs known to exist in bacteria and archaea and provides a starting point for biochemical and genetic studies needed to validate their biologic functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • codon
  • The DNA and RNA codon system is almost completely universal, in that almost every organism uses the same codon to code for the same amino acid . (everything2.com)
  • In plant organelles, specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are subjected to conversion editing, a process that often converts the first or second nucleotide of a codon and hence the encoded amino acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • novel
  • Although most dual RNA-seq approaches applied in bacterial infections have been exploratory, some of them have unraveled novel mechanisms of host-pathogen interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • mutations
  • Structured RNAs can be detected by comparative genomics, in which homologous sequences are identified and inspected for mutations that conserve RNA secondary structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • motifs
  • They reported that the three RNA 2'- O -methyltransferases have three conserved motifs, termed motifs 1, 2 and 3 ( Figure 3 ) [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • small
  • PRRSV is a small, enveloped RNA virus belonging to the genus Arterivirus in the family Arteriviridae of the order Nidovirales ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • A subclass of non-coding RNAs, small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), has been found to play important regulatory roles in gene expression in prokaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanisms
  • Although the lack of pseudouridine in RNAs contributes to translational and splicing defects and is implicated in one rare human disease, dyskeratosis congenita, the mechanisms remain obscure. (miami.edu)
  • bacterial
  • Given the sustained rate of RNA discovery over several similar projects, we expect that far more structured RNAs remain to be discovered from bacterial and archaeal organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • found
  • Post-transcriptional RNA modifications have been found to be present in a wide variety of organisms and in different types of RNA. (mdpi.com)
  • Many noncoding RNAs that likely act in trans are also revealed, and several of the noncoding RNA candidates are found mostly or exclusively in metagenome DNA sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study documents that RNA editing sites are often found in positions important for 3D structure formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • targets
  • In protein-protein interaction network, sRNA targets tend to occupy more central positions (higher closeness centrality, p-val = 0.022) and more cliquish (larger clustering coefficient, p-val = 0.037). (biomedcentral.com)