• Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are uniquely responsible for converting nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in all dividing cells. (springer.com)
  • The class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied to date couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides with the oxidation of formate to CO2. (rcsb.org)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase is an oligomeric enzyme composed of a large subunit (700 to 1000 residues) and a small subunit (300 to 400 residues) - class II RNRs are less complex, using the small molecule B12 in place of the small chain [ PMID: 11875520 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are important enzymes that convert the building blocks of RNA (NTPs) into building blocks of DNA (dNTPs). (lu.se)
  • Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of nucleotides to 2'-deoxynucleotides in all organisms. (mit.edu)
  • Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are key enzymes in DNA metabolism, with allosteric mechanisms controlling substrate specificity and overall activity. (elifesciences.org)
  • DNA is made of four building blocks called deoxyribonucleotides, which are in turn made from molecules called ribonucleotides by enzymes known as ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs for short). (elifesciences.org)
  • s findings provide an explanation for how RNRs can select between ribonucleotides so that they produce a good balance of deoxyribonucleotides in cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Las RNRs eucariotas están formadas por una subunidad citoplásmica R1, en la que se encuentra el sitio catalítico, y una nuclear R2, que posee el centro de hierro. (sebbm.es)
  • Essential for DNA biosynthesis and repair, ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) convert ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides via radical-based chemistry. (scripps.edu)
  • Synthesis of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) is essential for both DNA replication and repair and a key step in this process is catalyzed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), which reduce ribonucleotides (rNDPs) to their deoxy forms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) use radical-based chemistry to catalyze an essential step in DNA biosynthesis and repair, the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, and are important targets for anti-cancer therapy. (grantome.com)
  • Like certain other pathogens, S. sanguinis possesses aerobic class Ib (NrdEF) and anaerobic class III (NrdDG) ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) that perform the essential function of reducing ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. (syr.edu)
  • Gemcitabine 5-diphosphate (F2CDP) is a potent inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), enzymes that convert nucleotides (NDPs) to deoxynucleotides and so are needed for DNA replication and fix. (cancercurehere.com)
  • cDNA Cloning and Gene Characterization of Large and Small Subunits of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Soybean by Xinsheng Xiong Joe R. Cowles, Committee Chairman Department of Biology Abstract Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) reduces four ribonucleoside diphosphates to corresponding deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates, which are transformed into deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, substrates for DNA polymerase. (vt.edu)
  • abstract = "The ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii catalyzes adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)-dependent nucleotide reduction, as well as exchange of the 5' hydrogens of AdoCbl with solvent. (elsevier.com)
  • The iron-dependent enzyme, ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), is essential for DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the de novo synthesis of dNDPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase catalyzes the first unique step leading to the production of the four deoxy-ribonucleotides used to make DNA. (diva-portal.org)
  • The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) plays a critical role in the production of deoxynucleoside-5′-triphosphates (dNTPs), the building blocks for DNA synthesis and replication. (pnas.org)
  • A strain of Escherichia coli missing three members of the thioredoxin superfamily, thioredoxins 1 and 2 and glutaredoxin 1, is unable to grow, a phenotype presumed to be due to the inability of cells to reduce the essential enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. (pnas.org)
  • For example, the enzymes glutaredoxin 1, thioredoxin 1, and thioredoxin 2 are each capable of reducing the essential enzyme ribonucleotide reductase to regenerate its activity in vivo and in vitro ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the de novo synthesis of dNTPs (Nelson & Cox, 2000). (academic.ru)
  • The cytosolic enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis and its inhibition has been correlated with increased petite colony formation, reflecting loss of respiratory function. (g3journal.org)
  • The cytoplasmic enzyme ribonucleotide reductase is essential for DNA synthesis, and its activity is strongly correlated with cellular proliferation. (garvan.org.au)
  • Structure-function studies of the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from Escherichia coli. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • After 24 hours of incubation with GaM, cells displayed a loss of mitochondrial reserve capacity followed by a dose-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption and a decrease in the activity of the iron-dependent M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This paper describes a flow cytometric technique for the simultaneous measurement of DNA content and the M1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. (garvan.org.au)
  • The R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus type 2 was overproduced with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. (biochemj.org)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2) is located in chromosome-2 p25-p24, converts ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides which is required for DNA polymerization and repair. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2) is located in chr 2p25-p24. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Provided herein are novel compounds that inhibit ribonucleotide reductase (RR) by binding to RRM2 and interfering with the activity of the RRM1/RRM2 holoenzyme, as well as methods of synthesizing these novel compounds. (patentgenius.com)
  • Our transcriptome analysis shows that the ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2) is tightly regulated by the HGF/c-MET signaling in PEL. (jcancer.org)
  • The gene encoding the large subunit of HSV 1 ribonucleotide reductase was also expressed in E. coli, using similar techniques. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast to the wild-type, all three nrd ts mutants displayed a distinctly enhanced sensitivity of ribonucleotide reduction towards hydroxyurea (in permeabilized cells and in vitro) at 30° C. The results from assays for biochemical complementation of heat-inactivated (2 min, 37° C) mutant enzyme with either the small or the large subunit of wild-type Mn-RRase located the mutational defect on the large subunit. (springer.com)
  • Using purified bacterially expressed herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (R1) and the proteolytic enzymes chymotrypsin and trypsin, we have generated stable N-terminal truncations. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cloned genes indicated that they encoded an outer membrane protein, an aspartate decarboxylase, an efflux pump, heat shock protein HtpG, and an NrdA ortholog constituting the large subunit of a class Ia ribonucleotide reductase (RRase). (ecu.edu)
  • These results suggest that inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase may provide a potent strategy to prevent post-PTCA restenosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To test whether pharmacologic inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC #663249) enhances radiation sensitivity during low-dose-rate ionizing radiation provided by a novel purpose-built iridium-192 cell irradiator. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1991) Effects of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine on K562 cellular metabolism and the inhibition of human ribonucleotide reductase and DNA polymerases by its 5'-triphosphate. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase results in reduced DNA synthesis and cell cycle arrest [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the current presence of a reducing system, thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH (TR/TRR/NADPH) or 1, 4-dithiothreitol (DTT), inhibition resulted predominantly from covalent labeling of (1 label/ 2) (18). (cancercurehere.com)
  • The antiproliferative activity of 3′-Me-Ado appears to be related to its ability to deplete both intracellular purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleotides through ribonucleotide reductase inhibition. (elsevier.com)
  • Polymorphisms of gemcitabine metabolism-related genes of deoxycytidine monophosphate deaminase ( DCTD ), deoxycytidine kinase ( DCK ) and ribonucleotide reductase M1 ( RRM1 ) were evaluated using the CEQ TM 8000 Genetic analysis system and GeneDoc software. (aacrjournals.org)
  • dFdCDP exhibits the cytotoxic effect by inactivating ribonucleotide reductase larger subunit 1 (RRM1), which is a rate limiting enzyme for de novo DNA synthesis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Should the Mouse Ribonucleotide Reductase M1 (RRM1) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (noveoninc.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Ribonucleotide Reductase M1 (RRM1) in samples from tissue homogenates or other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Ribonucleotide Reductase M1 (RRM1) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
  • Forms an active ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) complex with RRM1 which is expressed both in resting and proliferating cells in response to DNA damage. (genecards.org)
  • Identification of Non-nucleoside Human Ribonucleotide Reductase Modulators. (anl.gov)
  • Structural basis for allosteric regulation of human ribonucleotide reductase by nucleotide-induced oligomerization. (anl.gov)
  • This mode of action is potentiated by the power of F2CDP to inhibit human ribonucleotide reductase (hRNR), the enzyme in charge of the conversion of nucleoside diphosphates to deoxynucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs) (10, 11). (cancercurehere.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'DeoxyATP-resistant ribonucleotide reductase of mutant mouse lymphoma cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly, thioredoxin 1 can maintain methionine-sulfoxide reductase in the reduced state, whereas thioredoxin 2, when expressed at levels similar to those of thioredoxin 1, does so only very inefficiently ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the case of the thioredoxins, the initial source of electrons is also NADPH, but in this case the electrons are transferred to the enzyme thioredoxin reductase, which then directly reduces oxidized thioredoxins (for review see ref. 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • To facilitate these studies, we identified, cloned, and isolated the physiological reductant for RNR (thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH), thus allowing us to monitor activity spectrophotometrically. (mit.edu)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor . (genecards.org)
  • The gene encoding the small subunit of HSV 1 ribonucleotide reductase was cloned into an expression plasmid under control of a tac promoter. (diva-portal.org)
  • Sequence alignment identified significant similarity of the 76.2-kDa gene product NrdD and the 30.9-kDa gene product NrdG with anaerobic class III ribonucleotide reductases and their corresponding activases. (mysciencework.com)
  • Since ribonucleotide reductase is important for the coordination of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation, we investigated the hypothesis that cells like BALB/c 3T3, which are TGF-beta-1 responsive, would exhibit modifications in expression of the gene for ribonucleotide reductase following growth factor treatment. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Increased ribonucleotide reductase R2 gene expression (3, 3.7, and 4.5-fold) and R1 gene expression (2, 2.5, and 2.6-fold) were observed following 6, 12, and 24 hours of TGF-beta-1 treatment, respectively. (islandscholar.ca)
  • These TGF-beta-1 mediated modifications in ribonucleotide reductase gene expression occurred, in part, prior to any detectable changes in the rate of DNA synthesis, demonstrating alterations in the normal regulation of ribonucleotide reductase. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Furthermore, these alterations could be markedly reduced by prolonged pretreatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (R2 gene expression increased by only 1.3, 1.5 and 2.3-fold after 6, 12, and 24 hours of TGF-beta-1 treatment, respectively), suggesting a role for a protein kinase C pathway in the TGF-beta-1 regulated changes in ribonucleotide reductase gene expression. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Setd2 deficiency also induces DNA replication stress in HSCs, as reflected by an activated E2F gene regulatory network and repressed expression of the ribonucleotide reductase subunit Rrm2b, which results in proliferation and cell cycle abnormalities and genomic instability, allowing accumulation of secondary mutation(s) that synergistically contributes to tumorigenesis. (nature.com)
  • The RRM2B gene provides instructions for making one piece, called the p53 inducible small subunit (p53R2), of a protein called ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes the small subunit of a p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase. (genecards.org)
  • RRM2B (Ribonucleotide Reductase Regulatory TP53 Inducible Subunit M2B) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The protein contained a novel tyrosyl free radical that spectroscopically resembled, but was distinguishable from, the active-site free radical found in either the E. coli or mammalian small subunits of ribonucleotide reductase. (diva-portal.org)
  • Specifically, RNR is responsible for the reduction of the ribonucleotides to the corresponding deoxynucleotides. (pnas.org)
  • RR catalyzes the reductive conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RDPR) from E. coli catalyzes the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides and contains an unusual tyrosyl radical- diferric cluster cofactor (E)-2'-Fluoromethylene-2'-deoxycytidine 5'- diphosphate [(E)-1] obtained by phosphorylation of the clinically promising antitumor agent MDL 101,731, is a potent time-dependent inactivator of this protein. (elsevier.com)
  • The B. fragilis nrdA and nrdB genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and CDP reductase assays confirmed that they encoded an active enzyme. (ecu.edu)
  • These results indicate for the first time that TGF-beta-1 can regulate the expression of the two genes for ribonucleotide reductase in BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts, and suggest that regulation of these genes plays an important role in critical events involved in growth factor modulation of normal and transformed cell proliferation. (islandscholar.ca)
  • contain class Ia and class II ribonucleotide reductases: expression analysis of the genes in vegetative growthThe GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the sequences determined in this paper are AJ224870, AJ276618, AJ277778, AJ295338 and AJ295339. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Similar efficacy was seen with the commercially available ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea, demonstrating the importance of this enzyme in vascular remodeling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The enzyme activity was inhibited by hydroxyurea, and ATP was shown to be a positive effector of CDP reductase activity, while dATP was an inhibitor, indicating that the enzyme was a class Ia RRase. (ecu.edu)
  • Earlier we demonstrated that ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors - hydroxyurea, and two deoxycytidine analogs specifically active in lymphoid cells - increased the phosphorylation of AZT in CEM cells by prolonging the S phase of the cell cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • The Schizosaccharomyces pombe replication inhibitor Spd1 regulates ribonucleotide reductase activity and dNTPs by binding to the large Cdc22 subunit. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Resveratrol is a remarkable inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme that provides the cell with a balanced supply of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication and repair. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a therapeutic target for DNA replication-dependent diseases such as cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The reductase inhibitors by themselves interfered with viral replication only at doses that inhibited cell proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • An assay system for functional small and large subunits of HSV 1 ribonucleotide reductase was developed, using two temperaturesensitive mutant viruses, defective in either the large (tsl207) or small (tsl222) subunits. (diva-portal.org)
  • Hey guys, I wanted to know if there is any simple colorimetric assay for detection of ribonucleotide reductase activity. (protocol-online.org)
  • A rapid assay for the allosterically regulated Mn-ribonucleotide reductase (RRase) was developed with nucleotide-permeable cells of C. ammoniagenes in order to screen for possible defects in DNA precursor biosynthesis at elevated temperature. (springer.com)
  • 3. Shao J, Zhou B, Zhu L, Bilio AJ, Su L, Yuan YC, Ren S, Lien EJ, Shih J, Yen Y. (2005) Determination of the potency and subunit-selectivity of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors with a recombinant-holoenzyme-based in vitro assay. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • To determine one of the associated mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation, we tracked ribonucleotide reductase 1 (Rnr1) protein levels during the DNA damage response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One mode of dNTP pool regulation is through subcellular localization of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of dNTP biosynthesis. (asm.org)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the DNA damage response is activated by Mec1, Rad53, and Dun1 kinases to mediate cell-cycle checkpoint activation, to activate DNA repair and to promote the regulation of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cellular regulation of ribonucleotide reductase in eukaryotes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) regulation is complex and multifaceted. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • However, these enzymes become more selective for certain ribonucleotides depending on which deoxyribonucleotide is most common within the cell. (elifesciences.org)
  • To achieve this objective has led to the alternative therapeutic approach targeting key enzymes that control cell proliferation such as ribonucleotide reductase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase subunit RRM2B (p53R2) has been reported to suppress invasion and metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). (elsevier.com)
  • Increasing the concentration of trypsin removes the 33K N-terminal polypeptide resulting in dN305R1 which, when bound to R2, has full ribonucleotide reductase activity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Across the remainder of RR1 and RR2, comparisons also reveal blocks of amino acids conserved between the different ribonucleotide reductases, and these may be important for enzyme activity. (nih.gov)
  • After infection of a mammalian cell with herpes simplex virus (HSV) a new ribonucleotide reductase activity appears, which is distinct from the mammalian enzyme activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Two monoclonal antibodies were raised against HSV (type 1) ribonucleotide reductase, and were found to bind but not neutralize its enzyme activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate limiting step in dNTP biosynthesis and is tightly regulated at the transcription and activity levels. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recent evidence indicates that iron metabolism and iron-dependent tumor growth are promising targets for cancer treatment as tumor cells have an increased demand for iron to support ribonucleotide reductase activity and mitochondrial function ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vaccinia virus infected monkey kidney cells had been previously shown to have an increased ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (RR) activity. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Two strains of Escherichia coli were studied to determine the effect of constitutive expression of the SOS DNA damage repair response on the activity of ribonucleotide reductase. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Activity of the reductase and cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools were both determined before and after exposure of the cells to ultraviolet radiation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Dun1 regulates dNTP pools during an unperturbed cell cycle and after DNA damage by modulating the activity of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by multiple mechanisms, including phosphorylation of RNR inhibitors Sml1 and Dif1. (prolekare.cz)
  • The essential function of the Mec1-Rad53-Dun1 pathway is to maintain an adequate supply of dNTPs by regulating the activity of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) during the normal cell cycle [4] - [6] . (prolekare.cz)
  • 1982) In vitro biological activity of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine and the biochemical actions of its triphosphate on DNA polymerases and ribonucleotide reductase from HeLa cells. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Enzyme activity of NrdD-like ribonucleotide reductases is dependent on a stable radical at a glycine residue in a conserved C-terminal motif. (mysciencework.com)
  • We observed 2.6, 4.1, and 4.8-fold increases in ribonucleotide reductase activity following TGF-beta-1 exposure for 6, 12, and 24 hours, respectively. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Loss of activity of a manganese-dependent, oxygen-dependent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) could explain the decrease in virulence. (vcu.edu)
  • Crystal structure of the di-iron/radical protein of ribonucleotide reductase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Characterization of a thermosensitive ribonucleotide reductase mutant derived from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6872 and its use in the production of nucleotides Von dem Fachbereich Biologie der Universität Hannover zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors de Naturwissenschaften -Dr. rer. (youscribe.com)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in de novo dNTP synthesis and, thus, is largely responsible for controlling intracellular dNTP pools ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Because most DNA repair pathways require de novo synthesis of DNA, damaged DNA signals the increased production and activation of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) enzyme ( 3 - 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme required for DNA synthesis and repair. (sebbm.es)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is essential for DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. (cornell.edu)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a potential target for developing anticancer agents because of its unique role in DNA synthesis, tumor growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance [ 9 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of dNTP synthesis and is an established cancer target. (anl.gov)
  • The rate limiting step in DNA synthesis is the production of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) catalyzed by ribonucleotide reductase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors reduce the cellular supply of DNA precursors (dNTP) by interfering with their de novo synthesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyses the rate-limiting step of dNTP synthesis, establishing it as an important cancer target. (elsevier.com)
  • Characterization of a broad-range disulfide reductase from Streptomyces clavuligerus and its possible role in β-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This thiyl radical then initiates the nucleotide reduction process by hydrogen atom abstraction from the ribonucleotide [ PMID: 9309223 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase contains a dimanganese(III)-tyrosyl radical cofactor in vivo. (uniprot.org)
  • In ribonucleotide reductase this energy is provided by an amino acid radical that upon each catalytic turnover is transferred from its stable position in the R2 protein to the active site of protein R1. (diva-portal.org)
  • The radical is believed to be transferred between the two proteins that constitute ribonucleotide reductase by a chain of hydrogen bonded amino acid residues. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, we tested whether the potent ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors Didox (3,4-dihydroxybenzohydraxamic acid) and Imidate (ethyl-3,4,5-hydroxybenzimidate) can limit the neointimal proliferation associated with restenosis using a rat carotid model of balloon dilatation injury. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using this approach, we examined the effectiveness of two ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors (RRI), Didox and Trimidox, to inhibit T-cell activation and proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given the potent efficacy and low toxicity of Didox and Trimidox in animal models, and the potential utility of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors as cytostatic agents that may influence immune cell activation, we investigated the anti-inflammatory ability of Didox and Trimidox as a therapeutic approach to improve transplant success. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1.17.4.1 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductases: ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The enzyme that fabricates and carefully controls the amount of each dNTP building block inside a cell is called ribonucleotide reductase. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is an α(n)β(n) (RR1-RR2) complex that maintains balanced dNTP pools by reducing NDPs to dNDPs. (anl.gov)
  • The crystal structure of class II ribonucleotide reductase reveals how an allosterically regulated monomer mimics a dimer. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) enzyme catalyzes an essential step in the production of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) in cells. (nih.gov)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes a ribonucleotide reductase which comprises two polypeptides with sizes of 136,000 (RR1) and 38,000 mol. (nih.gov)
  • Our studies present direct evidence that ribonucleotide reductase is the only essential enzyme that requires the three reductive proteins missing in our strains. (pnas.org)