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  • redox
  • In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an example, in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, transport is characterized through a series of redox and structural proteins extending from the cytoplasmic membrane to the outer cell surface (similar to Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron carriers are coenzymes that are often referred to as "redox cofactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitamins
  • Studies have demonstrated that the total concentrations of fat, protein, and lactose are relatively insensitive to current dietary intake and nutritional status, whereas the fatty acid profile and the concentrations of several micronutrients, particularly water-soluble vitamins, are responsive to maternal diet. (birthandbabiesbydesign.com)
  • plasma membrane
  • Following binding, and while the binding site is facing the same way, the carrier will capture or occlude (take in and retain) the substrate within its molecular structure and cause an internal translocation so that the opening in the protein now faces the other side of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The former yeast protein is present in the plasma membrane and pumps arsenite and antimonite, but not arsenate, tellurite, cadmium or phenylarsine oxide out of the cell in response to the proton motive force (pmf). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • While the exact process in which a cell will reduce an extracellular acceptor will vary from species to species, methods have been shown to involve the use of an oxidoreductase pathway that will transport electrons to the cell membrane that is exposed to the external environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Their colleague Hugo Theorell separated this yellow enzyme into apoenzyme and yellow pigment and showed that neither the enzyme alone or the pigment was capable of oxidizing NADH on their own but mixing them together would restore activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • A homologous protein, which can be rendered ineffective by the antibody to pure chicken riboflavin carrier protein, has been shown to occur in several mammalian species, including two species of monkeys, and also in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, glutathione reductase appears to be a good target for anti-malarials, as the glutathione reductase of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has a significantly different protein fold than that of mammalian glutathione reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporters
  • Previous studies have shown that sodium butyrate (NaB) affects intestinal uptake of other substrates and expression of their membrane transporters, but its effect on intestinal uptake of RF and expression of RFVT3 has not been examined. (springer.com)
  • Based on operon analyses, ARC3 homologues may function either as secondary carriers or as primary active transporters, similarly to the ArsB and ArsAB families. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • This increase was associated with a significant induction in the level of expression of the hRFVT3 protein, mRNA, and heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). (springer.com)
  • Mitochondria, however, depend on other proteins that are encoded by nuclear genes, constructed in the cytoplasm and then transported into the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • A carrier is not open simultaneously to both the extracellular and intracellular environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduced oxidoreductase enzymes at the extracellular membrane have been shown to use the following methods in transferring their electrons to the exogenous final acceptor: direct contact, shuttling via excreted mediators, iron chelating agents, through a conductive biofilm, and through conductive pili (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Biotinidase itself is known to be able to biotinylate histone proteins, but little biotin is found naturally attached to chromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotin binds tightly to the tetrameric protein avidin (also streptavidin and neutravidin), with a dissociation constant Kd on the order of 10−15 M, which is one of the strongest known protein-ligand interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene associated
  • An important gene associated with Abetalipoproteinemia is MTTP (Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism and Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) . (malacards.org)
  • human
  • Liu D, Zempleni J. Low activity of LSD1 elicits a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile in riboflavin-deficient human T Lymphoma Jurkat cells. (springer.com)
  • levels
  • CA 15-3 measures the levels of glycoprotein, a protein which is shed from breast cancer tumor cells into the bloodstream. (imaginis.com)
  • Studies
  • In Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), SCAD has been associated with a reduced amount of insulin release shown by an oral glucose tolerance test, or OGTT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly
  • Similarly, treating mouse colonoids with NaB led to a marked increase in the level of expression of the mRFVT3 protein, mRNA, and hnRNA. (springer.com)
  • yellow
  • Riboflavin is yellow or orange-yellow in color and in addition to being used as a food coloring it is also used to fortify some foods. (hmdb.ca)
  • breast cancer
  • The study shows that some physicians believe that aggressive cancer therapy is riskier in older patients and that women over the age of 75 are more likely to die of another ailment related to old age, such as heart disease, before the effects of breast cancer become devastating. (imaginis.com)
  • Popular talk-show host Rosie O'Donnell releases a new book about breast cancer. (imaginis.com)
  • Aromasin is a new method of treating Stage IV breast cancer in patients who do not show a response to the anti-cancer drug, tamoxifen. (imaginis.com)
  • study
  • Mazur-Bialy AI, Buchala B, Plytycz B. Riboflavin deprivation inhibits macrophage viability and activity-a study on the RAW 264.7 cell line. (springer.com)
  • often
  • Affected individuals show severe neurologic damage and often die in early childhood (summary by Reiss et al. (malacards.org)
  • energy
  • Efficient transportation of mitochondria depends on multiple factors, including their own energy production, the integrity of the cytoskeleton and its protein components (tubulin, etc.), and adequate myelination of the axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • It is synthesized in the mammary epithelial cell by the coupling of two IgA molecules, produced locally by lymphocytes resident in the breast tissue, with two proteins, J-chain and secretory component . (birthandbabiesbydesign.com)
  • potential
  • Many of the proteins in breastmilk have a multitude of potential functions. (birthandbabiesbydesign.com)
  • Of various nanoparticles, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with superparamagnetic property have shown potential as multifunctional nanoparticles for clinical translation because they have been used asmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constrast agents in clinic and their features could be easily tailored by including targeting moieties, fluorescence dyes, or therapeutic agents. (thno.org)
  • We highlight the potential utility of magnetic nanoparticle-based theranostic systems, which thus far are shown to be suitable for clinical use. (thno.org)