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  • actin
  • K. D. Luykenaar, R. A. El-Rahman, and M. P. Walsh, "Rho-kinase-mediated suppression of KDR current in cerebral arteries requires an intact actin cytoskeleton," American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology , vol. 296, no. 4, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 2p24 that encodes a protein kinase which is a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton and cell polarity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rho GTPases, a family of small GTP-binding proteins, are important candidates to coordinate remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton during myelination. (jneurosci.org)
  • One key mediator of growth inhibitory signaling is Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), which has been shown to modulate growth cone stability by regulation of actin dynamics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rho-rho kinase (ROCK) signaling controls polymerization of actin and thereby mediates various cell functions, such as contraction, migration, phagocytosis, and mitosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Using macrophages from sphingosine kinase 2 KO (SK2KO) mice to mimic ceramide-rich conditions of atherosclerotic lesions, we show that SK2KO macrophages display impaired actin polymerization and foam cell formation in response to contact with agLDL. (harvard.edu)
  • Is the small membrane associated G-protein rho involved in the signal cascade towards the actin reorganisation? (diva-portal.org)
  • Fluoreseenee mireoscopy after rhodamine-phalloidin labelling of actin was used to calculate the number of actin ring structures caused by propofol or GABA, in same experiments combined with pre-incubation with C 3 exotoxin, HA- 1077 or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Herbimycin A. Propofol-stimulated cells were studied with confocal microscopy. (diva-portal.org)
  • The activation eaused by propofol of rho and rho kinase causes actin to be moved from the cytoskeleton to the cell membrane and cytosol. (diva-portal.org)
  • 1. ROCK is a key regulator of actin organization and thus a regulator of cell migration as follows: Different substrates can be phosphorylated by ROCKs, including LIM kinase, myosin light chain (MLC) and MLC phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus in both cases, ROCK activation by Rho induces the formation of actin stress fibers, actin filament bundles of opposing polarity, containing myosin II, tropomyosin, caldesmon and MLC-kinase, and consequently of focal contacts, which are immature integrin-based adhesion points with the extracellular substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Other ROCK targets NHE1 (a sodium hydrogen exchanger, involved in focal adhesions and actin organisation) intermediate filament proteins: Vimentin, GFAP (glial fibrillaric acidic protein), NF-L (neurofilament L protein) F-actin binding proteins: Adducin, EF-1α (elongation factor, translation co-factor), MARCKS (myristylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate), Caponin (unknown function), and ERM (involved in linkage of the actin cytoskelton to the plasma membrane). (wikipedia.org)
  • This activated ROCK1 also activates LIM kinase, which, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ROCK kinases induce actomyosin-based contractility and phosphorylate TAU and MAP2 involved in regulating myosins and other actin-binding proteins in order to assist in cell migration and detachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cytokinesis, smooth muscle contraction, the formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, and the activation of the c-fos serum response element. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • Inhibitory signaling of myelin components and other repulsive guidance cues converges upon Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), which propagates this signal down to the cytoskeleton, influencing neurite growth and regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cleavage of the C-terminal inhibitory domain by caspase-3 during apoptosis can also activate the kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solution is developed, marketed, and distributed by Kowa Pharmaceuticals, but the compound itself was discovered by D. Western Therapeutics Institute, a company who specializes in protein kinase inhibitory compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic kinase domain
  • Structurally ROCKs have a catalytic kinase domain at the N-terminus, which is followed by a coiled-coil region, including the Rho-binding site, and a regulatory pleckstrin homology domain at the C-terminus with cysteine-rich repeats. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is a homodimer composed of a catalytic kinase domain (residues76-338) located at the amino or N-terminus of the protein, a coiled-coil region(residues 425-1100) containing the Rho-binding domain, and a pleckstrin-homology domain(residues 1118-1317) with a cysteine-rich domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitric oxide
  • At molecular level, Rho-kinase upregulates various molecules that accelerate inflammation/oxidative stress, thrombus formation, and fibrosis, whereas it downregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rho-kinase also decreases nitric oxide synthase activity, which reduces nitric oxide concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Because systemic disruption of both Rho-kinase isoforms results in embryonic lethality in mouse (unpublished observations), studies with site-specific disruption of each isoform should be performed to elucidate the possible functional difference between the 2 isoforms. (ahajournals.org)
  • substantially involved
  • In animal studies, Rho-kinase has been shown to be substantially involved in the pathogenesis of vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, stroke and heart failure, and to enhance central sympathetic nerve activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • pulmonary
  • Rho kinase and Ca 2+ entry mediate increased pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance in L-NAME-treated rats," American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology , vol. 293, no. 5, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • coronary
  • 5 Evidence is accumulating to suggest that diseases such as hypertension and coronary and cerebral vasospasm are associated with increased vascular Rho-kinase activity, 5 but no study has tested whether Rho-kinase function or expression might be influenced by gender. (ahajournals.org)