• 20th century
  • By the late 20th century, new fields like genomics and proteomics were reversing this trend, with organismal biologists using molecular techniques, and molecular and cell biologists investigating the interplay between genes and the environment, as well as the genetics of natural populations of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The general approach of the solution-diffusion model is to assume that the chemical potential of the feed and permeate fluids are in equilibrium with the adjacent membrane surfaces such that appropriate expressions for the chemical potential in the fluid and membrane phases can be equated at the solution-membrane interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The seminal article presenting their early studies described a rather complicated instrument that allowed partitioning of amino acids between water and chloroform phases. (wikipedia.org)