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  • repair proteins
  • Using immunohistochemistry, entire crypts within 10 cm on each side of colonic adenocarcinomas or advanced colonic neoplasias were found to be frequently reduced or absent in expression for two DNA repair proteins, Pms2 and/or ERCC1. (jove.com)
  • Viral
  • Gag, the major structural protein, forms the viral capsid. (mdpi.com)
  • Env is the receptor binding protein, facilitating the early steps in the virus-cell interaction and additionally drives the fusion process between the viral and cellular membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast to all other human endogenous retroviruses, some HERV-K proviruses have maintained open reading frames for all viral proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Viral proteins were shown to be expressed in primary melanomas, metastases, and melanoma cell lines by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses using specific antisera. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The human endogenous retrovirus K family (HERV-K) consists of 30 to 50 proviruses and is to date the only known human endogenous provirus that has retained open reading frames for all viral proteins ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the full-length mRNA of HERV-K is expressed in many tissues ( 10 ), expression of viral proteins and particle production had, until recently, only been shown for teratocarcinomas ( 11 , 12 ) when enhanced expression was also shown for melanomas ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This review will cover different viral oncology aspects, starting from the history of viral oncology and moving to the peculiar features of oncogenic RNA and DNA viruses, with a special focus on human pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tumors
  • Retroviruses are a family of viruses that cause a broad range of pathologies in animals and humans, from the apparently harmless, long-term genomic insertion of endogenous retroviruses, to tumors induced by the oncogenic retroviruses and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from human immunodeficiency virus infection. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, expression of a spliced env mRNA was found in human breast tumors but no data are available on virus protein expression ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • endogenous
  • We developed a system whereby the endogenous BRCA1 protein in a cell was acutely depleted by RNAi targeting the 3'-UTR of the BRCA1 mRNA and replaced by co-transfecting a plasmid expressing a BRCA1 variant. (jove.com)
  • assay
  • Structure-function analyses of the BRCA1 have been complicated by the lack of a robust assay for the full length BRCA1 protein and the difficulties inherent in working with cell lines that express hypomorphic BRCA1 protein 1,2,3,4,5 . (jove.com)
  • encode
  • Distinguishing them from simple retroviruses, complex retroviruses also encode a number of accessory proteins that carry out additional virus-specific functions. (mdpi.com)
  • In this experiment, Lee and colleagues observed that the RNA transcribed from the lin-4 locus did not encode a protein but instead silenced the gene encoding Lin-14, an important protein in larval development ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • virus
  • Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • The proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol, Pro and Env) have the same function regardless of the specific virus. (mdpi.com)
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the molecular pattern of all available Brazilian human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Env (n = 15) and Pol (n = 43) nucleotide sequences via epitope prediction, physico-chemical analysis, and protein potential sites identification, giving support to the Brazilian AIDS vaccine program. (krisp.org.za)
  • virus, in the words of one eminent scientist, can be thought of as 'a piece of bad news wrapped in protein. (maxshouse.com)
  • stimulates
  • Methods of vaccinating to raise an immune response include the administration of a protein or polypeptide which stimulates an aspect of the immune response in vivo, as well as the administration of a polynucleotide which, once properly administered to a subject, is transcribed and translated into a protein or polypeptide which stimulates an aspect of the immune response in vivo. (google.com)
  • gene
  • The molecular basis of epigenetic gene regulation is complex, but essentially involves modifications to the DNA itself or the proteins with which DNA associates. (jove.com)
  • These bacterial pathogens are engineered to express GFPuv protein and their green fluorescing colonies can be seen by naked eye under UV light in the nonhost pathogen inoculated plants if the silenced target gene is involved in imparting nonhost resistance. (jove.com)
  • Previous studies on tumor EGFR protein levels and EGFR gene copy number revealed inconsistent results. (jove.com)
  • What does this gene/protein do? (cancerindex.org)
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • envelope
  • Of the virally encoded proteins common to all retroviruses, the envelope (Env) displays perhaps the most diverse functionality. (mdpi.com)
  • focal
  • To assess how central myelinated axons of the spinal cord respond to injury, we developed an ex vivo living spinal cord model utilizing transgenic mice that express yellow fluorescent protein in axons and a focal and highly reproducible laser-induced spinal cord injury to document the fate of axons and myelin (lipophilic fluorescent dye Nile Red) over time using two-photon excitation time-lapse microscopy. (jove.com)
  • receptor
  • A conditional v-Rel estrogen receptor fusion protein, v-RelER, causes estrogen-dependent but otherwise unaltered v-rel-specific transformation of chicken bone marrow cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The produced protein is biochemically indistinguishable from the receptor isolated from patients. (labome.org)
  • migration
  • MIEN1 is considered an oncogenic protein, because MIEN1 overexpression functionally enhances migration and invasion of tumor cells via modulating the activity of AKT. (jove.com)
  • inherent
  • Traditional methodologies applied to the study of integral membrane protein function can be hampered by the inherent insolubility of the sequences under examination. (jove.com)
  • Genome
  • MiRNA-encoding genes comprise only 1-5% of the animal genome but have been estimated to affect approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • peptide
  • The Cu (I) complex of the peptide model of a Cu (I) binding metallochaperone protein, which includes the sequence MTCSGCSRPG (underlined is conserved), was determined in solution under inert conditions by NMR spectroscopy. (jove.com)
  • genetic
  • rather, they consist in essence of a length of nucleic acid-their genetic material-that is surrounded and protected by a protein coat. (maxshouse.com)
  • expression
  • Expression of 3CH134 in COS cells leads to selective dephosphorylation of p42MAPK from the spectrum of phosphotyrosyl proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Transfection of the plasmid that expresses I-SceI results in a double-stranded break, which may be repaired by homologous recombination, and if homologous recombination does repair the break it creates an active GFP allele that is readily scored by flow cytometry for GFP protein expression. (jove.com)
  • As an example, the expression of the BRCA1(M18T) protein, a variant of unknown clinical significance 10 , was expressed in these cells, it failed to restore BRCA1-dependent homologous recombination. (jove.com)
  • involves
  • The protocol involves allowing the purified tagged protein to bind to sheared genomic DNA and then affinity purifying the protein-bound DNA, followed by fluorescent labeling of the DNA and hybridization to a custom tiling array. (jove.com)
  • newly
  • In serum-stimulated normal fibroblasts, the kinetics of inactivation of p42MAPK coincides with the appearance of newly synthesized 3CH134 protein, and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide leads to persistent activation of MAP kinase. (nih.gov)
  • function
  • The potential impact of nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions on protein structure and function was assessed with PolyPhen-2 and SIFT. (jove.com)
  • activity
  • The activity level for the enzyme varies in response to growth-promoting stimuli and exhibits a high turnover rate in comparison to other mammalian proteins. (cancerindex.org)
  • highly
  • In many cases membrane-spanning proteins have evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms of action. (jove.com)
  • cell
  • Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional co-activator and regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. (jove.com)
  • domain
  • The remaining C -terminal domain may have the most variable functionality of all retroviral proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • potential
  • The redox potential of this disulfide bond was measured as -225 mV, which compares well with that of disulfides for other thioredoxin-like proteins. (jove.com)