• The present study demonstrates that KRAB/TRIM28-mediated regulation is responsible for controlling a very broad range of human-specific endogenous retroelements (EREs) in human embryonic stem (ES) cells and that it exerts, as a consequence, a marked effect on the transcriptional dynamics of these cells. (epfl.ch)
  • To investigate the expression of long interspersed element (LINE) 1, human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K10, and short interspersed element-VNTR-Alu element (SVA) retrotransposons in ejaculated human spermatozoa by means of reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis as well as the potential incorporation of cloned human and mouse active retroelements in human sperm cell genome. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • Exogenous retroelements were tagged with a plasmid containing a green fluorescence (EGFP) retrotransposition cassette, and the de novo retrotransposition events were tested with the use of PCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and confocal microscopy. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • LINE-1, HERV-K10, and SVA retrotransposons are transcriptionally expressed in human spermatozoa and cloned active retroelements can be incorporated in the human sperm genome, giving rise to de novo retrotransposition events. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • Retroelement expression in human spermatozoa, incorporation of cloned human and mouse active retroelements in human sperm genome, and de novo retrotransposition events in human spermatozoa. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • Although these retroelements are formidable motors of evolution, they can occasionally cause disease, and accordingly are inactivated during early embryogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms. (epfl.ch)
  • DUX4 activates germline genes, retroelements, and immune mediators: implications for facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. (nih.gov)
  • Within the element we identified an open reading frame with sequences homologous to the reverse transcriptase, RNaseH, and integrase domains of retroelement pol genes. (nih.gov)
  • Every cell contains roughly 3 million "jumping genes" or endogenous retroelements that comprise up to 45% of the DNA present in the human genome. (ca.gov)
  • A full-lenght consensus LTR retroelement genome is characterized by an internal translating region (gag and pol genes, and env gene when is present) flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs). (github.io)
  • For example, retroelements have been found to play an important role in regulating gene expression (switching genes on and off) and in the repair of chromosomes. (creation.com)
  • A survey of tRNA genes and retroelements (Ty) in the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. (gsf.de)
  • Aspects of the genomic organisation and evolution of the tRNA genes and retroelements and their interplay have been analyzed. (gsf.de)
  • Additional analyses of the genomic distribution of these retroelements provided evidence of biased insertions near genes involved in various biological processes including plant development, defense, and macromolecule biosynthesis. (g3journal.org)
  • One area of our research addresses a unique class of retroelements, which can drive accelerated variation in targeted genes. (mbl.edu)
  • I plan to generate datasets of the transcriptomes of prime and naive cells in the presence and absence of ZNF765 to see if naive-associated genes, prime-associated genes, or retroelements are up-regulated or down-regulated when the expression of ZNF765 is altered. (ucsc.edu)
  • Fujii, Y.R. (2010) RNA genes: Retroelements and virally retroposable microRNAs in human embryonic stem cells. (scirp.org)
  • and SIM ( Huang and Miller, 1991 ) to identify all retroelements generated by reverse transcribed genes with introns. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • The database contains functional genes from ENSEMBL homologous to Hoppsigen retroelements. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are a family of retroelements that were first found in Bordetella phage (BPP-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs), which guide site-specific protein hypervariability6-8, are prominent features of genomically reduced organisms from the bacterial candidate phyla radiation (CPR) and as yet uncultivated phyla belonging to the DPANN (Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota and Nanohaloarchaea) archaeal superphylum. (escholarship.org)
  • Diversity Generating Retroelements (DGRs) are genetic cassettes that can introduce tremendous diversity into a short, defined region of the genome. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In contrast to "selfish" retroelements such as group II introns and retrotransposons, DGRs impart an advantage to their host by increasing its adaptive potential. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Diversity generating retroelements (DGRs) can generate a much greater range of localized diversity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, instead of the "copy and paste" mechanism of these classical retroelements, DGRs use a "copy and replace" strategy. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Through a process called mutagenic retrohoming, diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) enable codon re-writing and can explore a massive repertoire of sequence variants for specific proteins. (mbl.edu)
  • Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) provide organisms with a unique means for adaptation to a dynamic environment through massive protein sequence variation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) create massive sequence variation (10 12-20 ) in select proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we present a genomewide analysis of LTR retroelements in Daphnia pulex, a cyclical parthenogen and the first crustacean for which the whole genomic sequence is available. (iu.edu)
  • The researchers suggested that the ability of retroelements to produce genomic rearrangements in hybrid wallabies, due to deficient methylation (eventually resulting in the formation of new species) may be a widespread phenomenon in hybrid mammals. (creation.com)
  • In addition, an Australian research group has now proposed that retroelements are involved in mammalian speciation. (creation.com)
  • These results provide insight into the possible role of retroelements in determining the positioning of CENP-A binding at human neocentromeres, and that a hierarchical and symmetrical arrangement of CENP-A-binding clusters of varying sizes may be an important structural requirement for mammalian kinetochore assembly and/or to provide stability to withstand polar microtubule forces. (monash.edu)
  • Mammalian retroelements. (wikipathways.org)
  • We present arguments that the amplification of different retroelements within populations of M. grisea is a consequence of the clonal organization of the fungal populations. (nih.gov)
  • The architecture of the different retroelements under consideration is schematized in Fig. 1 A , indicating that they are all molecular mosaics, with different functional modules associated with RT. (pnas.org)
  • Fortunately, many of these retroelements have been permanently silenced during evolution by crippling mutations. (ca.gov)
  • Although in most cases they have no effect on the host organism, there are many examples of mutations caused by retroelements resulting in various diseases. (github.io)
  • While nearly half of the identified LTR retroelements belong to the gypsy group, we also found copia (95), BEL/Pao (66) and DIRS (19) retroelements. (iu.edu)
  • Major classes of retroelements include the Ty1-copia, the Ty3-gypsy and the LINE (non-LTR) groups. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Cheng, ZJ & Murata, M 2003, ' A centromeric tandem repeat family originating from a part of Ty3/gypsy-retroelement in wheat and its relatives ', Genetics , vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 665-672. (elsevier.com)
  • LTR retroelements, mainlythe Ty3-gypsy families ?Fidel/Feral? (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Noticeably, we found evidences of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) only in some of the Gypsy retroelements. (usda.gov)
  • IgG reactive with the p40 protein encoded by the LINE-1 retroelement. (bioportfolio.com)
  • protein encoded by the LINE-1 retroelement. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In that context, the studies published by Carter et al (1) identifying reactivity of sera from SLE patients with the 40 kD protein product of the first open-reading frame (ORF) of the human LINE-1 (L1) retroelement are of great interest. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Anticipatory ligand binding through massive protein sequence variation is rare in biological systems, having been observed only in the vertebrate adaptive immune response and in a phage diversity-generating retroelement (DGR). (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1041342, title = {Conservation of the C-type lectin fold for massive sequence variation in a Treponema diversity-generating retroelement}, author = {Le Coq, Johanne and Ghosh, Partho}, abstractNote = {Anticipatory ligand binding through massive protein sequence variation is rare in biological systems, having been observed only in the vertebrate adaptive immune response and in a phage diversity-generating retroelement (DGR). (osti.gov)
  • The central DNA transposase gene encodes, in eight exons, a predicted 160-KDa protein producing BLAST alignments with En/Spm -type transposons. (hindawi.com)
  • Retroelement-guided protein diversification abounds in vast lineages of Bacteria and Archaea. (escholarship.org)
  • Retroelement-guided diversification is further shown to be active in current CPR and DPANN populations, with an assortment of protein targets potentially involved in attachment, defence and regulation. (escholarship.org)
  • RESF1 (Retroelement Silencing Factor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • They have been divided into two groups, DNA transposons and retroelements. (creation.com)
  • In contrast to transposons, however, most retroelements 'jump' only occasionally, and there are many which appear to have lost this ability. (creation.com)
  • A particular retroelement, called G2/Jockey-3, was found in all centromeres, not only in this species of fruit fly, but also in a closely related one, Drosophila simulans . (news-medical.net)
  • Their findings suggest that these selfish DNA elements may have a role in centromere function across a wide range of species, as retroelements have been found to be associated with centromeres in fungi, plants, mammals… and now fruit flies. (news-medical.net)
  • By combining it with a species or a taxon, it is possible to extract retroelements for one or few species. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • During reprogramming of skin cells to iPS cells, DNA methylation patterns are erased, potentially making iPS cells vulnerable to heightened retroelement activity. (ca.gov)
  • In addition we are exploring several cellular defenses beyond DNA methylation that may counter retroelement retrotransposition in iPS cells (e.g. (ca.gov)
  • Orthologous to human RESF1 (retroelement silencing factor 1). (jax.org)
  • And, because retrotransposition can confer genetic diversity that is beneficial to the host, the vertebrate intrinsic immunity has evolved to support a balance between retroelement insertions that confer beneficial and those that cause deleterious gene disruptions. (frontiersin.org)
  • As expected, cellular machineries of vertebrate's intrinsic immune system have evolved to support a balance between retroelement insertions that confer beneficial genetic diversity and those that cause deleterious gene disruptions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transposon display assays of mutation-accumulation lines showed evidence for putative somatic insertions for two DIRS retroelement families. (iu.edu)
  • Our results suggest that transposition and recombination of retroelements are likely important sources of variation in Citrus . (plantcell.org)
  • Drosophila telomeres being maintained by transposition of specialized telomeric retroelements. (uniprot.org)
  • In vitro targeting of strand transfer by the Ty3 retroelement integrase. (escholarship.org)
  • Mov10 was significantly elevated in postnatal murine brain, where it bound retroelement RNAs and mRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two-thirds of the Mov10-associated RNAs encode retroelements, including long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), while the rest of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encode proteins involved with neurite outgrowth and cytoskeleton. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using the marsupial model, the tammar wallaby, we show that centromeric retroelements produce small RNAs and that hypermorphic expression of these centromeric small RNAs results in disruption of CENP-A localization. (researchwithnj.com)
  • We also show that nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), a mechanism of DNA repair found in all extant eukaryotes, but only some bacteria, significantly enhances the efficiency of retrotransposition and the effects of retroelements on the host. (pnas.org)
  • More mature differentiated cells control retroelement movement (retrotransposition) chiefly by methylating the DNA comprising these retroelements. (ca.gov)
  • Exogenous retroelements were tagged with a plasmid containing a green fluorescence (EGFP) retrotransposition cassette, and the de novo retrotransposition events were tested with the use of PCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and confocal microscopy. (fertstertdialog.com)
  • In particular, retroelements, transported by an intracellular copy-and-paste process involving an RNA intermediate, constitute a majority of these mobile genetic elements. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phylogenetic evidence suggests that a factor in the emergence of the ancestral eukaryotic cell may have been selection pressure resulting from invasion and proliferation of retroelements. (pnas.org)
  • The retrotransposon controls Ruby expression, and cold dependency reflects the induction of the retroelement by stress. (plantcell.org)
  • Retroelement jumping involves copying its RNA transcript back into DNA (see figure) using the enzyme reverse transcriptase. (creation.com)
  • Also shown are the reverse transcriptase (RT) and endonuclease (EN) domains. (sciencemag.org)
  • They encode for a single ORF with a central RT domain and an endonuclease (EN) conserved domain at the C-terminus. (github.io)
  • Retroelements have been found in the chromosomes of eukaryotes (which unlike bacteria, have cells with a defined nucleus) such as yeast (the simplest eukaryote), fruit flies, and in vertebrates such as mice and man. (creation.com)
  • Here we experimentally determine the effects of a retroelement invasion on genetically simple host organisms, and we demonstrate theoretically that the observed effects are sufficient to explain their observed rarity in bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • The same two families were also assayed across natural isolates (both cyclical parthenogens and obligate asexuals) and there were more retroelements in populations capable of reproducing sexually for one of the two families assayed. (iu.edu)
  • In the course of investigating the genetic relationship between pathogen genotype and host specificity we identified a retroelement that is present in some strains of M. grisea that infect finger millet and goosegrass (members of the plant genus Eleusine). (nih.gov)
  • Retroelement Insertion in a CRISPR/Cas9 Editing Site in the Early Embryo Intensifies Genetic Mosaicism. (frontiers-of-retrovirology.com)
  • The finding indicated also that the jumping gene in the hybrid had probably been reconstructed (and reactivated) by the genetic combination of two incomplete, inactive segments of a retroelement present in one or both of the parents. (creation.com)
  • Based on the rapid jumping of retroelements in hybrid wallabies 6 and fruit flies, 2 on their ability to cause DNA rearrangements, and on their role in gene regulation, 1 it is plausible that these TEs were active in the past, and were an original mechanism for expressing God's programmed variation within kinds. (creation.com)
  • Active Expression of Retroelements in Neurons Differentiated from Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells, Neural Stem Cells and Therapy Tao Sun, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/30105. (intechopen.com)
  • The presence of retroelements in some chromosomal regions suggests their participation in various chromosomal rearrangements. (bvsalud.org)
  • Grasshopper, a long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelement in the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea. (nih.gov)
  • These findings will allow me or other Haussler lab members to verify the same conditions in naive cells to generate transcriptome datasets that will let us determine whether ZNF765 and or the retroelements regulated by it play an early developmental regulatory role in prime and naive cells. (ucsc.edu)
  • In addition, we analyze transcriptional data and perform transposon display assays of lab-reared lineages and natural isolates to identify potential influences on TE mobility and differences in LTR retroelements loads among individuals reproducing with and without sex. (iu.edu)
  • In silico sequence analysis indicates an ∼2.5-fold increase in the prevalence of L1 retroelements within the CENP-A-binding clusters when compared with the non-CENP-A-binding regions. (monash.edu)
  • Since the amino acid sequence deduced from the 250 bp with seven CAAs showed some similarity (∼53%) to that of the gag gene, we concluded that the 250-bp repeats had also originated from the cereba-like retroelements in diploid wheat such as Ae. (elsevier.com)