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  • MUTATIONS
  • Cytoplasmic sequestration of p53 has been proposed as a mechanism by which the function of this protein can be suppressed, particularly in tumor types such as neuroblastoma in which the frequency of mutations of p53 is low. (aacrjournals.org)
  • tumors
  • HCMV has been shown to induce cervical neoplasia in mice ( 6 ), it can morphologically transform human ( 7 , 8 ) as well as other mammalian ( 9 - 11 ) cells in culture, and HCMV-transformed cells can form tumors in experimental animals ( 6 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • mechanism
  • Using the same cell line, we have now investigated a potential mechanism for HGF-induced apoptosis. (oup.com)
  • However, if HCMV infection does contribute to tumor induction in humans, the mechanism underlying HCMV-induced oncogenesis is very likely different from that of DNA viruses that are known to play a role in human malignancies. (pnas.org)
  • Mice
  • Objective- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) ligands attenuate angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced atherosclerosis through interactions with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-specific PPARγ in hypercholesterolemic mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • PPARγ ligands, namely the thiazolidinedione compounds, reduce hypercholesterolemia-induced and angiotensin II (Ang II)-enhanced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient 4 and low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient 5 , 6 mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • secretion
  • Ang II-induced TGF-β1 secretion was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activation through reactive oxygen species production. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- These findings suggest that Ang II decreases PPARγ abundance in cultured VSMCs via an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent secretion of TGF-β1 via phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and histone deacetylase 3. (ahajournals.org)
  • carcinogenesis
  • Virally-induced cancers, thought to account for about 20% of the global cancer incidence, have long been studied to enable better understanding of the clinical manifestation of the disease as well as for their value as models of carcinogenesis overall ( Farrell, 2002 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These models are being used to systematically elucidate proteins required for cutaneous carcinogenesis and to test their potential role as therapeutic targets. (stanford.edu)
  • siRNA
  • Ang II-induced PPARγ reduction was dependent on stimulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 as demonstrated using either a neutralizing antibody or small interfering RNA (siRNA). (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by SB203580 or siRNA inhibited both Ang II- and TGF-β1-induced PPARγ reduction. (ahajournals.org)
  • quiescent
  • By comparison, most studies of quiescence have been performed in cell culture, where contact inhibition, drug treatments or withdrawal of mitogens induce a quiescent state that is most often readily reversible ( Coller, 2011 ). (biologists.org)
  • Genetic
  • Finally, a combined genetic and biochemical approach will be used to identify additional protein participants in the chaperone reaction. (grantome.com)
  • members
  • Here, we will review the development of different genetically engineered mouse models, in particular those affecting stratified epithelia, and how they have offered new avenues to understand the roles of the Rb family members and their targets in the context of tumor development and progression. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that a pharmacologic inhibitor of Cdc25 family members (A, B, and C) protects mouse primary neurons from hypoxia-induced delayed death. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Finally, it has been suggested that rapid progression through G1 limits accumulation of the activity of the G1/S checkpoint protein retinoblastoma (Rb) or Rb family members, which normally promote differentiation ( 8 ), because Rb is both phosphorylated and inactivated simultaneously by CDKs. (pnas.org)
  • cancer
  • Because loss or perturbation of their activity often results in cancer or other diseases, and because of their central role in governing organismal development and tissue homeostasis, these proteins are of great interest. (grantome.com)
  • functional
  • Functional biomarkers p16, Ki-67, p53, retinoblastoma protein cytokeratin (CK)14 and CK13, help in the assessment of an individual CIN's lesion's potential for progression and regression. (bmj.com)