• The chromatin modifier domain or chromodomain (CD) is a conserved domain that is contained within a number of eukaryotic proteins involved in chromosome maintenance and remodelling. (iscb.org)
  • Sufferers of the former were over six times more likely to develop other types of cancer later in life, compared to individuals with sporadic retinoblastoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • This explains why sufferers of sporadic retinoblastoma are not at increased risk of cancers later in life, as both alleles are functional in all their other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Residential pesticide exposures in pregnancy and the risk of sporadic retinoblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. (cdc.gov)
  • pRb is a multifunctional protein with many binding and phosphorylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although its common function is seen as binding and repressing E2F targets, pRb is likely a multifunctional protein as it binds to at least 100 other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multifunctional nuclear protein large T-antigen was detectable by immunohistochemical analyses in a subset of neoplastic cells. (cdc.gov)
  • gene name abbreviated Rb, RB or RB1) is a tumor suppressor protein that is dysfunctional in several major cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • TOPORS, a tumor suppressor protein, contributes to the maintenance of higher-order chromatin architecture. (rbprotein.com)
  • [ 4 ] The E6 protein product of these high-risk HPVs binds to the tumor suppressor protein p53, which is thought to disrupt the p53-dependent control of the cell cycle. (medscape.com)
  • The pRb-E2F/DP complex also attracts a histone deacetylase (HDAC) protein to the chromatin, reducing transcription of S phase promoting factors, further suppressing DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identified histone demethylase RBP2 as directly downregulated by miR-181d and found that RBP2 inhibited p65 expression in leukemia cells by its binding to the p65 promoter and demethylating the tri/dimethylated H3K4 region in the p65 promoter locus. (researchsquare.com)
  • The CD is 60-90 amino acids long and has been proposed to be a protein-protein interaction module, an RNA and/or DNA-binding domain, and a recognition module for histone tail modification. (iscb.org)
  • These CD-containing proteins can be classified into protein families based on other domains contained in the protein, for example the histone acetyltransferase family, the histone methyltransferase family and the Retinoblastoma-binding protein family (which contains TUDOR and BRIGHT domains), in addition to the CD. (iscb.org)
  • Within each domain, there are a variety of protein binding sites, as well as a total of 15 possible phosphorylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, phosphorylation causes interdomain locking, which changes pRb's conformation and prevents binding to target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The various markers that enable assessment of the progression of preneoplastic lesions to spindle cell carcinoma include the p16 protein, which halts the cell cycle and induces apoptosis by pRb-mediated phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). (bvsalud.org)
  • Purification: This antibody is purified through a protein A column, followed by peptide affinity purification. (hatinhibitor.com)
  • cdc2 protein kinase is complexed with both cyclin A and B: Evidence for proteolytic inactivation of MPF. (cshlpress.com)
  • Together, we demonstrate that Ocln is a downstream target of Src kinase and promotes LD secretion by binding to BTN1a1 and XOR. (bvsalud.org)
  • The NEMO protein is required for the activation of the kinase complex. (medscape.com)
  • The regulatory effect of transcription factors of specificity protein 1 (SP1) on RBBP7 mRNA expression was confirmed in dual-luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A hidden Markov model (HMM) consensus sequence was created for each cluster and used to identify CD-containing proteins in several model eukaryotes. (iscb.org)
  • Many proteins in eukaryotes are covalently attached to myristic acid in membranes through amide linkages formed by myristoyl CoA:protein N-myristoyl transferase (NMT), at a glycine, with a consensus site: G-(EDRKHPFYW) -x-x-(STAGCN) -P. This allows a range of enzymes to be concentrated in specific domains within the cell. (en-academic.com)
  • These 18 residues CCHC zinc finger domains are mainly found in the nucleocapsid protein of retroviruses. (embl.de)
  • Moreover, the expression of miR-328 was lost in blast crisis of CML and its overexpression could promote cell differentiation and inhibit cell proliferation, by inducing the survival factor PIM1 and suppressing the binding between the translational regulator poly(rC)-binding protein hnRNP E2 and CEBPA [9]. (researchsquare.com)
  • A CCHC metal-binding domain in Nanos is essential for translational regulation. (embl.de)
  • nanos mutations disrupting metal binding at either of these two sites in vitro abolish Nanos translational repression activity in vivo. (embl.de)
  • Mutations affecting the hunchback mRNA target sites for Nanos-dependent translational repression were found to disrupt translational repression in vivo, but had little effect on Nanos RNA binding in vitro. (embl.de)
  • Myristoylation is an irreversible, co translational (during translation) protein modification found in animals, plants, fungi, protozoans[1] and viruses. (en-academic.com)
  • [ 8 ] Research into the genome of MCV is expanding and specific proteins are being explored for their clinical utility. (medscape.com)
  • SARS CoV-2 is an RNA virus and its RNA genome is 30 kb in length. (springer.com)
  • In humans, the protein is encoded by the RB1 gene located on chromosome 13-more specifically, 13q14.1-q14.2. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 2 ] The defect in the X chromosome is proximal to the gene for factor VIII at Xq28. (medscape.com)
  • P53 is one of the most important tumour suppressor proteins in the body which protects the cell against the tumourigenic effects of DNA damage by initiating processes such as apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle arrest. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Given that aromatase is critical in promoting tumour growth and BRCA1 and 2 mutations account for an 80% increased risk in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer development, it is important to investigate the relationship between BRCA1 and aromatase expression in patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, approximately 80% of patients with HCC are not eligible for surgery as they are diagnosed with advanced-stage tumors [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusion: p63, p16, MIB, Cal A, Cys A are markedly expressed and p16 is strongly suppressed in oral cavity tumors, which suggests that the latter protein may play a role in negative regulation of cell cycle progression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Among oncogenic viruses are those in the Polyomaviridae family, whose members infect an array of vertebrate species, including birds, humans, nonhuman primates, bovids, rodents, and sea lions ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, among the recent coronavirus outbreaks in the new millennium (SARS CoV: 2002-2003, MERS CoV: 2012, SARS CoV-2: 2020), SARS CoV-2 mysteriously had the most devastating global impact. (springer.com)
  • Understanding the proteins present in these viruses enable a more rational approach to designing more effective antiviral drugs [ 9 , 10 ]. (springer.com)
  • Over the past quarter of a century, an outstanding progress in understanding of the proteins involved in cancer progression has grown, providing chances for identifying new targets for anti-cancer therapy [ 2 , 3 ]. (genominfo.org)
  • Immunohistochemical identification of molecular genetic events in the progression of preneoplastic lesions to spindle cell squamous-cell carcinoma enables early detection of lesions with the potential for malignant progression, thus permitting timely intervention 1,2 . (bvsalud.org)
  • NSP1 binds to the 40S ribosome of the host cell to inactivate translation and promotes host mRNA degradation selectively, while the viral SARS CoV mRNA remain intact [ 15 ]. (springer.com)
  • The roles of BRCA1 in cellular functions include cell cycle control, protein degradation, DNA damage repair, and transcriptional regulation of its target genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 11. Amsel, A. & Roussel, J. Motivational properties of ences in post-transcriptional processes spark interest in the development of frustration: I. Effect on a running response of the (protein redistribution, degradation), pharmacotherapies that selectively reg- addition of frustration to the motivational com- plex. (lu.se)
  • This demonstrates the utility of bioinformatics to identify subtle variations within large datasets of protein domain sequences which can be used to predict differences in domain function and / or specificity that are not obvious in existing domain databases. (iscb.org)
  • The aims of the current study were to investigate whether women with hereditary BRCA1 mutations resulting in a reduction of BRCA1 protein levels or bioactivity, show alterations in CYP19A1 gene expression in major aromatase target tissues such as breast and the ovary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NEMO consists of 10 exons, and most mutations cause deletions of exons 4-10, resulting in a truncated protein. (medscape.com)
  • Hypomorphic mutations may impair but not abolish NEMO protein function. (medscape.com)
  • This protein is also found in SARS coronavirus and is known to be a potent inhibitor of host gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Cystatin A (Cys A), a cysteine protease inhibitor, is a precursor of proteins involves in keratinocyte keratinization, and is expressed during the late phase of differentiation of these cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 6 (RBBP6) is a RING finger-containing protein which plays a critical role in the 3'-end processing of mRNA transcripts. (uwc.ac.za)
  • The Drosophila Nanos protein is a localized repressor of hunchback mRNA translation in the early embryo, and is required for the establishment of the anterior-posterior body axis. (embl.de)
  • Lipid droplets (LD) are evolutionarily conserved lipid-enriched organelles with a diverse array of cell- and stimulus-regulated proteins. (bvsalud.org)
  • We found that OCLN was located on the LD membrane and was bound to essential regulators of lipid secretion, including BTN1a1 and XOR, in a C-terminus-dependent manner. (bvsalud.org)
  • The devastating effects of the recent global pandemic (termed COVID-19 for "coronavirus disease 2019") caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) are paramount with new cases and deaths growing at an exponential rate. (springer.com)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) is the virus that caused the global pandemic that was first reported [ 1 ] on December 31, 2019 [ 2 ]. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrate that the lack of functional BRCA1 protein correlates to higher aromatase levels in 85% of BRCA1 mutation carriers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The p63 protein, a homologue of p53, may be associated with tumor formation in the epithelial tissue, acting as an oncogene 11,12 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor KB (NF-KB) requires the NEMO protein. (medscape.com)
  • Should an oncogenic protein, such as those produced by cells infected by high-risk types of human papillomavirus, bind and inactivate pRb, this can lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • ENLE induces apoptosis in a prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) by up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreasing the level of Bcl-2 protein resulting in DNA fragmentation in prostate cancer cells [ 9 , 10 ]. (genominfo.org)
  • Hu et al showed that this suppression of aromatase transcription while mediated by BRCA-1-associated RING domain (BARDI) protein is also dependent on other tissue-specific co-regulators, present only in granulosa and adipose tissue and not cancer epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [ 2 ] The death rate from cervical cancer has decreased dramatically since the American Cancer Society recommended the use of the Papanicolaou test (Pap test) for cervical cancer screening in the mid 1940s. (medscape.com)
  • In many countries, vaccines against some human papillomavirus (HPV) types are now administered to girls and young women with the goal of protecting them against HPV-induced cervical cancer ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • prostate and breast cancers are the 2 most commonly diagnosed cancer types and account for 28% of all new cancer cases [ 1 ]. (longdom.org)
  • Compared to cancer incidence in 2003, there is a slight increase in the number of new prostate and breast cancer cases without any significant change in death rates [ 2 ]. (longdom.org)
  • Endocr Relat Cancer 15(2):485-497. (who.int)
  • pRb binds and inhibits E2 promoter-binding-protein-dimerization partner (E2F-DP) dimers, which are transcription factors of the E2F family that push the cell into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that full-length and C-terminal Nanos proteins bind to RNA in vitro with high affinity, but with little sequence specificity. (embl.de)
  • Although accessory proteins have been viewed as dispensable for viral replication in vitro, some have been shown to play an important role in virus-host interactions in vivo [ 11 ]. (springer.com)
  • OSKM includes four factors-octamer 3/4 (Oct3/4), SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2), Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf-4), and c-myelocytomatosis (c-Myc) oncogene that is used to induce pluripotency in vitro [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6) is a 250 kDa RING finger-containing protein whose function is known to be mediated through interaction with other proteins. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. (embl.de)
  • Microinjection of the ras oncogene protein into PC12 cells induces morphological differentiation. (cshlpress.com)
  • Analysis of nanos mutants reveals that a small, evolutionarily conserved, C-terminal region is essential for Nanos function in vivo, while no other single portion of the Nanos protein is absolutely required. (embl.de)
  • Using absorption spectroscopy and NMR we demonstrate that the CCHC motifs each bind one equivalent of zinc with high affinity. (embl.de)
  • while in blast phase of CML (CML-BP), a large number of invasive primitive and immature cells accumulate [2]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Over the last 2 decades, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have had various potential applications in various medical research areas, from personalized medicine to disease treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and give rise to 2 daughter cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Another protein, calgranulin A (Cal A), is involved in the regulation of several cell processes, including the cell cycle and cell differentiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • pRb is able to bind to transcription factors in the E2F family and thereby inhibit their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it plays a critical role in male sexual function 2 . (medrxiv.org)
  • During development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), excessive nutritional load is thought to expose pancreatic islets to toxic effects of lipids and reduce ß-cell function and mass. (bvsalud.org)
  • We also found that the CD contained within the proteins in the same family is almost invariably of the same subclass, and that different families, in most cases, contain a specific subclass of CD, which indicates there is a strong correlation between the CD subclass and the specific function of the proteins within the family. (iscb.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which negatively or positively regulate genes expression, by directly binding to the 3'untranslated regions (3'UTR) of the target genes mRNAs [7]. (researchsquare.com)
  • In males, higher levels have been suggested to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) 6 . (medrxiv.org)
  • A genetic study of type 2 neurofibromatosis in the United Kingdom. (wikidata.org)
  • This article discusses what was formerly referred to as incontinentia pigmenti type 2, also known as Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome, a rare, X-linked, dominantly inherited disorder of skin pigmentation that is often associated with ocular, dental, and central nervous system abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing ZnF_C2HC domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. (embl.de)
  • Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target. (embl.de)