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  • distinct
  • Cos2/Kif7 and Osm-3/Kif17 regulate onset of outer segment development in zebrafish photoreceptors through distinct mechanisms. (mcw.edu)
  • Although these studies clearly demonstrate that the epigenetic cues play a critical role in differentiation of retinal progenitors, the conserved sequence of the generation of retinal cell types suggests that the progenitors that define the early and late stages of histogenesis have distinct competence to give rise to specific cell types. (jneurosci.org)
  • amacrine cells
  • RGCs ( Waid and McLoon, 1998 ), and amacrine cells ( Belliveau and Cepko, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Development of ON and OFF cholinergic amacrine cells in the human fetal retina. (washington.edu)
  • We found that deletion of the ON bipolar cation channel TRPM1 results in the abnormal contraction of rod bipolar terminals and a decreased number of their synaptic connections with amacrine cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, TRPM1 deficiency led to the reduction of total dendritic length, branch numbers, and cell body size in AII amacrine cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Direct connections between rod bipolar and AII amacrine cells in host and graft were seen in the 10-month specimens. (lu.se)
  • electrophysiological
  • Electrophysiological recordings showed similar retinal responses and sensitivities for GHL(+), GHL(+)/Chop(-/-) and GHL(+)/Ask1(-/-) animals between 4-28 weeks, by which time all three mouse lines exhibited severe loss of retinal function. (nih.gov)
  • Electrophysiological recordings from individual rods showed that the time that a bright flash response remained in saturation was significantly shorter if the rod had been previously exposed to bright light. (nih.gov)
  • prostheses
  • Retinal Prostheses: What Next After Argus Approval? (aao.org)
  • Three retina specialists take a look at where we are now-and what impediments remain-in the development and adoption of retinal prostheses. (aao.org)
  • Despite advances in the development of retinal prostheses over the past two decades, the performance of devices currently on the market to help the blind regain functional vision is still severely limited - well under the acuity threshold of 20/200 that defines legal blindness. (kurzweilai.net)
  • temporal
  • The ontogeny analysis indicated that the lacZ expression completely agrees with a temporal expression pattern of Crx during retinal development. (jneurosci.org)
  • Genes
  • By modifying gene activity in subsets of cells in the limb and then observing the behavior of these modified cells over time, we are able to learn how genes ultimately regulate the overall form in the limb. (byu.edu)
  • Because defining the mechanisms of regulation of photoreceptor-specific genes is important to understanding the regulation of cell type specificity, mechanisms of transcriptional regulations of these photoreceptor-specific molecules have been studied extensively. (jneurosci.org)
  • "Genome" refers to the complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or an organism. (visionaware.org)
  • Argus II
  • But patients received more than a glimmer of hope with the February 2013 FDA approval of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products) for use in advanced RP. (aao.org)
  • Glutamate
  • In contrast, these histological alterations were not caused by a disruption of total glutamate transmission due to loss of the ON bipolar glutamate receptor mGluR6 or the photoreceptor glutamate transporter VGluT1. (jneurosci.org)
  • onset
  • In 2008, NEI-supported investigators reported results from a landmark phase I clinical trial of gene therapy in three patients with a blinding, early onset retinal disease, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), which is caused by a defect of the RPE65 gene. (nih.gov)
  • whereas
  • Furthermore, overexpression of Channelrhodopsin-2 partially rescued rod bipolar cell development in the TRPM1 −/− retina, whereas the rescue effect by a constitutively closed form of TRPM1 was lower than that by the native form. (jneurosci.org)
  • signals
  • The great biological importance of photoreceptors is that they convert light (visible electromagnetic radiation ) into signals that can stimulate biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the retinal tissue was at a stage equivalent to 28 weeks of development in the womb, with fairly mature photoreceptors, the researchers tested these mini-retinas to see if the photoreceptors could in fact sense and transform light into visual signals. (healthcanal.com)
  • augment
  • Our study illuminates several questions regarding the evolution of duplex retina and supports the hypothesis that, in mammals, the S-cone lineage was recruited via the Maf-family transcription factor NRL to augment rod photoreceptors. (zfin.org)
  • Modifying factors may mitigate or augment disease severity, leading to different retinal cellular phenotypes. (bmj.com)
  • stimulate
  • Activated by incident light, photosensitive silicon nanowires 1 micrometer in diameter stimulate residual undamaged retinal cells to induce visual sensations. (kurzweilai.net)