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  • pathogen
  • Relative to a susceptible plant, disease resistance is the reduction of pathogen growth on or in the plant (and hence a reduction of disease), while the term disease tolerance describes plants that exhibit little disease damage despite substantial pathogen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, pathogen-free seed, appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Plant disease resistance is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant reductions in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • malaria
  • The call comes amid concern over resistance of malaria parasites to antimalarial drugs, including artemisinin-the core compound of the best available antimalarial medicines. (who.int)
  • The best way to address the threat posed by drug resistance is to eliminate malaria altogether from the countries of the Mekong. (who.int)
  • There are other cases of genetic mutations affecting two diseases: People who inherit one of the two mutations necessary to develop sickle-cell anemia end up with extra resistance to malaria, said Dr. Donald Mosier, professor of immunology at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. (wired.com)
  • microbes
  • The first evolutionary force they considered is how often drug resistance arises in the microbes through genetic mutation. (psu.edu)
  • Killing all of the infecting microbes obviously stops any further evolution of drug resistance, but we can't do this in every case. (psu.edu)
  • If a small number of microbes are already resistant to treatment, or if drug resistance arises by chance, high doses of medication may allow resistant microbes to survive and spread by the very act of killing off drug-sensitive microbes. (psu.edu)
  • In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Researchers seeking to understand mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance have focused on gene mutations, such as activating mutations in the oncogene KRAS . (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The researchers evaluated the cells for gene mutations linked to cetuximab resistance, but they didn't find any. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • One gene that has been identified in warfarin resistance is VKORC1, a gene responsible for warfarin metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the cells that lack the amp resistance gene will be killed off, leaving only those with resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells who have successfully taken in the plasmid will survive due to the amp resistance gene, while the cells who did not take up the DNA will die. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unless the drug used makes sexual reproduction or cell-division or horizontal gene transfer impossible in the entire target population, resistance to the drug will inevitably follow. (wikipedia.org)
  • those who inherit a mutated gene from just one parent will end up with greater resistance against HIV than other people, but they won't be immune. (wired.com)
  • Besides the Northern Europeans and Central Asians with the CCR5 receptor gene mutation, new research shows that members of several ethnic groups have another, less-powerful kind of AIDS resistance. (wired.com)
  • In the Science study released this week, a large team of investigators report that people who have more copies of a specific gene end up with greater resistance to AIDS, in some cases significantly changing how they handle getting infected. (wired.com)
  • Practice
  • A new model shows that the standard practice of treating infections with the highest tolerable dose of anti-microbial medications may not be best for preventing the evolution of drug resistance in all cases. (psu.edu)
  • threat
  • Members of Enterobacteriaceae family, for example, Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae pose the biggest threat regarding plasmid-mediated resistance in hospital- and community-acquired infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • high doses
  • There is nothing in evolutionary theory that says that the dogma of hitting infections hard with high doses of medication should be the best rule of thumb to prevent drug resistance," said Andrew Read, Evan Pugh Professor of Biology and Entomology and Eberly Professor in Biotechnology at Penn State University. (psu.edu)
  • mutations
  • However, many patients have tumors with genetic mutations that make them resistant to these anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies, or the cancers develop resistance during treatment. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • pesticide
  • Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pesticide resistance is increasing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the evolution of pesticide resistance is usually discussed as a result of pesticide use, it is important to keep in mind that pest populations can also adapt to non-chemical methods of control. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to resistance, managers may increase pesticide quantities/frequency, which exacerbates the problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pests with limited diets are more likely to evolve resistance, because they are exposed to higher pesticide concentrations and has less opportunity to breed with unexposed populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, pathogen-free seed, appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absolute thermal resistance is the temperature difference across a structure when a unit of heat energy flows through it in unit time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method can be generalised to include any number of layers of heat-conducting materials, simply by adding together the absolute thermal resistances of the layers and the temperature drops across the layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to chemicals is only one aspect of the problem, another being resistance to physical factors such as temperature, pressure, sound, radiation and magnetism, and not discussed in this article, but found at Physical factors affecting microbial life. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolve
  • Insect predators and parasites generally have smaller populations and are less likely to evolve resistance than are pesticides' primary targets, such as mosquitoes and those that feed on plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • In Urfa massacres had begun in the middle of August, during August 15-19, 400 people were driven outside the town and killed, Armenians in Urfa rather being deported and killed preferred to put up a resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pierre Schunck came into contact with the resistance because he lived across the street from a cave where people hid. (wikipedia.org)
  • And in the end he decided to get more people involved and set up a resistance organisation, which hid a total of 150 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • exercises
  • Originating in the early 20th century, the bands were originally made from surgical tubing and the exercises conducted for muscle rehabilitation, and resistance band training is now used widely as part of general fitness and strength training. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there are many different forms of exercises for the band/ loops, the resistance of the band as well as number of repetitions are the main variable options to lower or increase the intensity of the workout. (wikipedia.org)
  • describes
  • Relative to a susceptible plant, disease resistance is the reduction of pathogen growth on or in the plant (and hence a reduction of disease), while the term disease tolerance describes plants that exhibit little disease damage despite substantial pathogen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • equivalent
  • In graph theory, the resistance distance between two vertices of a simple connected graph, G, is equal to the resistance between two equivalent points on an electrical network, constructed so as to correspond to G, with each edge being replaced by a 1 ohm resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SI units of thermal resistance are kelvins per watt or the equivalent degrees Celsius per watt (the two are the same since the intervals are equal: Δ1 K = Δ1 °C). The thermal resistance of materials is of great interest to electronic engineers because most electrical components generate heat and need to be cooled. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is largely due to an increase in internal resistance rather than a drop in the voltage of the equivalent source. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • In the broad sense, specific "rolling resistance" (for vehicles) is the force per unit vehicle weight required to move the vehicle on level ground at a constant slow speed where aerodynamic drag (air resistance) is insignificant and also where there are no traction (motor) forces or brakes applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific thermal resistance or specific thermal resistivity Rλ in (K·m)/W is a material constant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples
  • Examples of resistance mechanisms include different Qnr proteins, aminoglycose acetyltransferase aac(6')-Ib-cr that is able to hydrolyze ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, as well as efflux transporters OqxAB and QepA. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Low rolling resistance tires typically incorporate silica in place of carbon black in their tread compounds to reduce low-frequency hysteresis without compromising traction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurement with an alternating current, typically at a frequency of 7003100000000000000♠1 kHz, may underestimate the resistance, as the frequency may be too high to take into account slower electrochemical processes. (wikipedia.org)