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  • soluble
  • Methods to measure the thermodynamic stability of membrane proteins have largely followed methods developed for soluble protein folding ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, although there is now considerable experimental and theoretical validation of this approach for soluble proteins ( 2 ⇓ - 4 ), the validity of these extrapolations is not clear for measuring stability of membrane proteins. (pnas.org)
  • This study was aimed at investigating whether a key mediator of exocytosis, soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein alpha (?SNAP), regulates epithelial junctions. (jove.com)
  • Wasserman et al , 2000 ), where they release the soluble and active form of membrane tethered ligands, including Spitz, Gurken and Keren ( Urban et al , 2002a ). (embopress.org)
  • mutants
  • The Arabidopsis GET system functioned in vivo to insert TA proteins into ER membranes as demonstrated by the fact that the YFP-tagged SYP72 localized to the ER in wild-type plants but accumulated as cytoplasmic inclusions in get1 , get3 , or get4 mutants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Hence, the GET system is responsible for the insertion of TA proteins into the ER in Arabidopsis, and mutants with GET dysfunctions are more susceptible to ER stress. (plantphysiol.org)
  • detergents
  • We also assessed the effects of different detergents on membrane solubilization and AgrC kinase activity, and polyoxyethylene-(23)-lauryl-ether (Brij-35) was identified as the most suitable detergent. (mdpi.com)
  • 1. Designer detergents that remove the membrane protein from the lipid bi-layer where it resides, 2. (medgadget.com)
  • epithelial cells
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • For example, epithelial cells face the outside world or lumen of an organ on one side, and the interstitial environment and basement membrane on the other. (rupress.org)
  • Epithelial cells generally contain at least two different plasma membrane syntaxins. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. (jove.com)
  • structural
  • These cells exhibit functional and structural asymmetry in their apical and basolateral plasma membranes that is essential to their function. (rupress.org)
  • Recently, structural and functional insight into tethering mediated by the ARM-repeat protein p115 has been provided. (jove.com)
  • Based on a structural model of rhodopsin developed from these studies in combination with biochemical and molecular biological approaches, we have been able to establish the key residues that are in contact with the retinal and responsible for protein activation. (searlescholars.net)
  • The small size of the protein makes it tractable for detailed structural studies. (searlescholars.net)
  • Using multiple techniques such as structural modelling, X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy, scientists have found that the Spc110 protein provides a greater function in mitosis originally believed. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Phospholipids are water insoluble "building blocks" that define the membrane barrier surrounding cells and provide the structural scaffold and environment where membrane proteins reside. (technologynetworks.com)
  • encode
  • Many of the 33 isoforms are predicted to encode proteins with unique amino acid sequences, which would allow them to be specifically targeted for one or more therapeutic strategies-including monoclonal antibodies and T-cell-based vaccines. (pnas.org)
  • vivo
  • To investigate the role of dysferlin in response to membrane wounding in an intact in vivo preparation, sea urchin embryos were used in conjunction with two-photon laser scanning microscopy to image Ca 2+ signals before and after plasma membrane wounding. (biologists.org)
  • amino acid sequences
  • The aim of de novo protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. (jove.com)
  • biological
  • Genome sequencing projects have ciphered millions of protein sequence, which require knowledge of their structure and function to improve the understanding of their biological role. (jove.com)
  • They are also involved in biological communication: the binding of a specific substance to the exterior of the membrane can initiate, modify, or turn off a cell function. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Our results suggest that detergent‐solubilised rhomboid activity mimics its activity in biological membranes in many aspects. (embopress.org)
  • permeability
  • The osmotic and permeability parameters of a cell membrane are essential physico-chemical properties of a cell and particularly important with respect to cell volume changes and the regulation thereof. (jove.com)
  • The unexpected finding of several fold higher L(p) values for endosmotic flow indicates highly asymmetric membrane permeability for water in COS-7. (jove.com)
  • skeletal muscle
  • This approach has recently demonstrated that membrane-delimited signaling involving cross-talk between inositol (1,4,5)-triphosphate receptor (IP 3 R) and RyR contributes to Ca 2+ spark activation in skeletal muscle. (jove.com)
  • transmembrane
  • It presents a large groove that accommodates the transmembrane region of the protein that's being targeted. (uchospitals.edu)
  • Our research on the mechanism of signal transduction mediated by receptor oligomerization has focused on the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of several membrane proteins involved in signaling. (searlescholars.net)
  • Current projects are on the structure of the transmembrane domain of the neu/erbB-2 receptor protein and the structure of the E5 protein and its interactions with the PDGF receptor. (searlescholars.net)
  • In these proteins, transmembrane interactions are known to be involved in the signal transduction process. (searlescholars.net)
  • These methods provide a probe of the local secondary structure and the three dimensional packing of the transmembrane portions of membrane proteins. (searlescholars.net)
  • Also, we have recently developed an IR method based on cysteine sulfhydryl exchange that allows us to determine the rotational orientation of transmembrane helices in a membrane protein or protein oligomer. (searlescholars.net)
  • barrier
  • Recent studies provide evidence that disruption of TJ by the parasitic protein EhCPADH112 is a prerequisite for E. histolytica invasion that is accompanied by epithelial barrier dysfunction. (jove.com)
  • stability
  • The thermodynamic stability of proteins is typically measured at high denaturant concentrations and then extrapolated back to zero denaturant conditions to obtain unfolding free energies under native conditions. (pnas.org)
  • We therefore sought to measure stability under native conditions, using a method that does not perturb the properties of the membrane or membrane mimetics. (pnas.org)
  • We introduced SDS unfolding to measure the thermodynamic stability of the membrane enzyme diacylglycerol kinase ( 9 ) and a similar approach can be used to measure bR thermodynamic stability ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • residue
  • Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. (genecards.org)
  • visualize
  • Chemists from MIT have now designed a GFP equivalent for electron microscopy - a tag that allows scientists to label and visualize proteins with unprecedented clarity. (technologynetworks.com)
  • mutant
  • These disease-causing variants fall into two classes: point mutations in the sterol reductase domain perturb enzymatic activity by reducing the affinity for the essential cofactor NADPH, while LBR truncations render the mutant protein metabolically unstable, leading to its rapid degradation at the inner nuclear membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of purified mutant proteins suggests that rhomboids use a serine protease catalytic dyad instead of the previously proposed triad. (embopress.org)
  • expression
  • A C -terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion to AgrC served as a reporter for monitoring protein expression levels in real time. (mdpi.com)
  • These findings suggest novel roles for ?SNAP in promoting the formation of epithelial AJs and TJs by controlling Golgi-dependent expression and trafficking of junctional proteins. (jove.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies specific for each avian protein were developed and used to quantify expression and to determine cellular distribution. (searlescholars.net)
  • syntaxin
  • disruption of microtubules leads to partial mislocalization of syntaxin 3 to the basal membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Although these results were consistent with the idea that syntaxin 3 must be restricted to the apical membrane to achieve maximal fidelity of apical cargo transport, it could not be excluded that the observed cargo mistargeting was an indirect effect of microtubule disruption. (rupress.org)
  • inner
  • Here, we report that Lem2p (LEM2), a member of the LEM (Lap2-Emerin-Man1) family of inner nuclear membrane proteins, and the ESCRT-II/ESCRT-III hybrid protein Cmp7p (CHMP7), work together to recruit additional ESCRT-III proteins to holes in the nuclear membrane. (pnas.org)
  • The inset on the upper right depicts distinct subcellular localizations of the human sterol reductases LBR and TM7SF2 localizing to the inner nuclear membrane and ER, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Using the new imaging technique, the MIT-led team labeled the protein and determined that it is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane and faces into the innermost part of mitochondria, the mitochondrial matrix. (technologynetworks.com)
  • machinery
  • A fundamental aspect of the varied roles of ESCRT factors is their recruitment by site-specific adaptors, yet the central question of how the ESCRT machinery is targeted to nuclear membranes has remained outstanding. (pnas.org)
  • It is especially unclear whether dedicated membrane insertion machinery for such proteins exists. (rupress.org)
  • motifs
  • Here we describe the p115 ARM-motifs for reasons of clarity and nomenclature and show that both sequence and structure are highly conserved among ARM-repeat proteins. (jove.com)
  • Additionally, we propose to define a new subfamily of ARM-like proteins and show lack of evidence that the ARM motifs found in p115 are present in other long coiled-coil tethering factors of the golgin family. (jove.com)
  • role
  • Quantification of mitotic timing revealed a delay between NEBD and chromatin separation, indicating a role of SUN proteins in bipolar spindle assembly and mitotic progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • crucial
  • That's a problem, because knowing the structure of a protein can be crucial in determining how to lock on to its shape and influence its behavior. (protomag.com)
  • spectroscopy
  • Scientists utilising X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy have discovered that the way proteins move hour by hour is central to cyanobacteria's circadian clock function. (technologynetworks.com)