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  • biology
  • Remember the definition of a mammal from your high school biology textbook? (apologeticspress.org)
  • The word "clone" has several different meanings in biology. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology and Pathology of the Oocyte: Its Role in Fertility and Reproductive Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1966 Yanagimachi ended up at the University of Hawaii as an assistant professor and has become a full professor of department of anatomy and reproductive biology at the John A. Burns School of Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • While he was at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology as a Dr. M.C. Chang's postdoctoral fellow (1960-1964), he witnessed and recorded the entire process of sperm penetration through the zona pellucida and fusion with the egg proper in living (hamster) egg, which was the first in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • But even if humans could be cloned, they would not necessarily be identical, according to Grebe who noted that human twins may appear to be exactly alike, but have distinct personalities. (cnn.com)
  • And in January, an elderly Chicago physicist named Richard Seed triggered a national media furor simply by telling a radio reporter about his half-baked proposal to clone humans. (latimes.com)
  • In a few more years, the knowledge on how to clone humans could be present. (bartleby.com)
  • With statistics that strong, it proves that the extent to the public's opposition to the cloning of humans. (bartleby.com)
  • Cloning of humans would give parents who are infertile the possibility to have a child that would be biologically theirs and if they wish theirs partners. (bartleby.com)
  • Thru cloning humans, doctors would be able to have a perfect organ transplant or bone marrow donor. (bartleby.com)
  • For example, in humans, somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes organized into 23 pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opponents of cloning have concerns that technology is not yet developed enough to be safe, that it could be prone to abuse (leading to the generation of humans from whom organs and tissues would be harvested), and have concerns about how cloned individuals could integrate with families and with society at large. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • structures found in the nucleus of a cell that contain the genes. (marymeetsdolly.com)
  • A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Best studied are mammals, where three distinct genes encode NOS isozymes: neuronal (nNOS or NOS-1), cytokine-inducible (iNOS or NOS-2) and endothelial (eNOS or NOS-3). (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the adaptive immune system, the three preeminent sets of genes are those that code for the Mhc, T-cell receptor (Tcr), and B-cell receptor (Bcr, the antibodies) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The class I genes were discovered in 1936 (the year Jan Klein was born) as coding for blood group (red blood cell) antigens, which, however, were also responsible for the rejection of incompatible grafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sheep
  • Scottish embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues had taken a mammary gland cell from a six-year-old Scottish Finn Dorset ewe and, via a process known as "nuclear transfer," succeeded in placing the genetic material from that cell into a hollowed-out egg cell from a Scottish Blackface sheep. (apologeticspress.org)
  • That zygote-which then contained the full complement of 54 chromosomes (as if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell)-was placed into the uterus of a second Scottish Blackface sheep that served as a surrogate mother. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The sheep (Ovis aries) is a quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative medicine
  • Trounson was the President of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine between 2007 and 2014, a former Professor of Stem Cell Sciences and the Director of the Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories at Monash University, and retains the title of Emeritus Professor. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammary
  • In 1937, the administration of BST was shown to increase the milk yield in lactating cows by preventing mammary cell death in dairy cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of rBST or BST prior to peak production, in cows that are well fed, slows the rate at which the number of mammary cells decreases, and increases the amount of nutrients directed away from fat and toward the mammary cells, leading to an extension of peak milk production. (wikipedia.org)
  • possibilities
  • While the prospects of cloning may open exciting possibilities like the replication of an Albert Einstein or a Mother Teresa, it brings with it some terrifying prospects. (cnn.com)
  • In bioethics, the ethics of cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • An example of this is the modern cultivated species of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., a hexaploid species whose somatic cells contain six copies of every chromatid. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The first one was a female named Cumulina from the cells that surround the developing ovarian follicle in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice cloned by the Honolulu technique were displayed at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi, and the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • One bioethicist, Jacob M. Appel of New York University, has gone so far as to argue that "children cloned for therapeutic purposes" such as "to donate bone marrow to a sibling with leukemia" may someday be viewed as heroes. (wikipedia.org)
  • invertebrates
  • It has been implicated in transitions between vegetative and reproductive states in invertebrates, and in differentiation leading to spore formation in slime molds. (wikipedia.org)
  • advances
  • Human cloning might seem like something out of a science-fiction novel, but it may someday be possible with advances in science and technology. (bartleby.com)
  • The Yanagimachi laboratory and his former associates continue to make advances in cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • advancement
  • Before that advancement arrives, we need to ask ourselves if this knowledge of cloning is a beneficial idea or a destructive one. (bartleby.com)
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and other scientific organizations have made public statements suggesting that human reproductive cloning be banned until safety issues are resolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) can contain up to 300 kb, and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), grown in yeast cells, can handle up to 2,000 kb, or 2 megabases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chromosomes come in pairs, and a normal human cell contains 46 chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosomes and two sex chromosomes. (marymeetsdolly.com)
  • Like all cells, somatic cells contain DNA arranged in chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • implications
  • In a more welcome vein, the first in what promises to be a series of books examining the implications of cloning has been published. (latimes.com)
  • Cloning and Its Sociobiological Implications Picture this: walking down a street and seeing someone who looks exactly like you. (bartleby.com)
  • cattle
  • All maintained healthy stats comparable to control cattle, and reached reproductive maturity at the proper stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of these cloned cattle successfully mated, each producing a healthy calf. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015 the Chinese company BoyaLife announced that in partnership with the Korean company Sooam Biotech, they were planning to build a factory in Tianjin, China to produce 100,000 cloned cattle per year, starting in 2016 to supply China's growing market for quality beef. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • Recently, animals have been cloned, and cloning has become no less than true reality. (bartleby.com)
  • Cloning of animals is opposed by animal-groups due to the number of cloned animals that suffer from malformations before they die, and while food from cloned animals has been approved by the US FDA, its use is opposed by some other groups concerned about food safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • This would negate the exploitation of animals in scientific research on cloning, cloning used in food production, or as other resources for human use or consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • possibility
  • Suddenly the stuff of science fiction doesn't seem so fanciful anymore as one considers the possibility of dictators cloning themselves, dead geniuses brought back to life, or beloved family pets resurrected. (cnn.com)
  • types
  • There are approximately 220 types of somatic cells in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is synthesized by many cell types in response to cytokines and is an important factor in the response of the body to attack by parasites, bacterial infection, and tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (wikipedia.org)
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)